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Sci Total Environ. 2017 Dec 1;601-602:741-755. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.224. Epub 2017 Jun 1.

The role of cadmium in obesity and diabetes.

Author information

1
Yaroslavl State University, Yaroslavl, Russia; Orenburg State Medical University, Orenburg, Russia; RUDN University, Moscow, Russia. Electronic address: tinkov.a.a@gmail.com.
2
CREAGEN, Environmental, Genetic and Nutritional Epidemiology Research Center, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy.
3
Orenburg State Pedagogical University, Orenburg, Russia.
4
Department of Public Health, Hedmark University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway; Research Department, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Brumunddal, Norway.
5
Institute of Experimental Morphology, Pathology and Anthropology with Museum, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria.
6
Faculty of Medicine, Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski", Sofia, Bulgaria.
7
Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine, Mo i Rana, Norway.
8
Orenburg State Medical University, Orenburg, Russia; South-Ural State Medical University, Chelyabinsk, Russia.
9
Orenburg State Medical University, Orenburg, Russia; St Joseph University in Tanzania, St Joseph College of Health Sciences, Dar es salaam, Tanzania.
10
Orenburg State Medical University, Orenburg, Russia.
11
Yaroslavl State University, Yaroslavl, Russia; RUDN University, Moscow, Russia; Orenburg State Pedagogical University, Orenburg, Russia.

Abstract

Multiple studies have shown an association between environmental exposure to hazardous chemicals including toxic metals and obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. At the same time, the existing data on the impact of cadmium exposure on obesity and diabetes are contradictory. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to review the impact of cadmium exposure and status on the risk and potential etiologic mechanisms of obesity and diabetes. In addition, since an effect of cadmium exposure on incidence of diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance was suggested by several epidemiologic studies, we carried out a meta-analysis of all studies assessing risk of prevalence and incidence of diabetes. By comparing the highest versus the lowest cadmium exposure category, we found a high risk of diabetes incidence (odds ratio=1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.71), which was higher for studies using urine as exposure assessment. On the converse, results of epidemiologic studies linking cadmium exposure and overweight or obesity are far less consistent and even conflicting, also depending on differences in exposure levels and the specific marker of exposure (blood, urine, hair, nails). In turn, laboratory studies demonstrated that cadmium adversely affects adipose tissue physiopathology through several mechanisms, thus contributing to increased insulin resistance and enhancing diabetes. However, intimate biological mechanisms linking Cd exposure with obesity and diabetes are still to be adequately investigated.

KEYWORDS:

Adipose tissue; Cadmium; Diabetes; Insulin resistance; Obesity

PMID:
28577409
DOI:
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.05.224
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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