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Clin Psychol Rev. 2017 Jul;55:92-106. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2017.04.009. Epub 2017 Apr 25.

Cardiac-disease-induced PTSD (CDI-PTSD): A systematic review.

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Department of Psychology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel. Electronic address:
The Bob Shapell School of Social Work, Tel Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, Israel. Electronic address:
Department of Psychology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel. Electronic address:
Center for the Treatment and Study of Anxiety, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Psychiatry, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:


The goal of the current systematic review was to provide an overview of the findings in the field of Cardiac-Disease-Induced Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CDI-PTSD) in order to establish CDI-PTSD as a valid diagnostic entity for a wide spectrum of cardiac diseases and related medical procedures. In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic electronic literature search. Of the 3202 citations identified, 150 studies meeting the selection criteria were reviewed. Our main findings were that the prevalence of CDI-PTSD ranged between 0% and 38% (averaging at 12%) and was highly dependent on the assessment tool used. The most consistent risk factors are of a psychological nature (e.g., pre-morbid distress). The consequences of CDI-PTSD range from psychosocial difficulties to lack of adherence and heightened mortality rates. Much inconsistency in the field was found with regard to patients who present with diagnoses other than acute coronary syndrome (e.g., cardiac arrest) and who undergo potentially traumatic medical procedures (e.g., defibrillator implantation). Yet the current review seems to strengthen the conceptualization of CDI-PTSD as a valid diagnostic entity, at least with regard to acute cardiac events.


Cardiac illness; Diagnostic validity; Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); Systematic literature review

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