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J Exp Bot. 2017 Jun 15;68(13):3375-3390. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erx180.

Localization of Arabidopsis FORKED1 to a RABA-positive compartment suggests a role in secretion.

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Department of Biological Sciences, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, TIK 3M4, Canada.
Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.


When FORKED1 (FKD1) is mutated, asymmetric localization of PINFORMED1 (PIN1), particularly to the apical side of cells, fails to occur properly in developing veins, resulting in an open vein pattern. FKD1 encodes a protein with a Pleckstrin homology-like (PL) domain, suggesting interaction with phosphoinositides. FKD1 has been previously found to interact with an ADP ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein (ARF-GAP) important for vein patterning, SCARFACE/VAN3 (SFC). We find that FKD1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) localizes to the plasma membrane and to punctae labeled by SFC-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Supporting the idea that the FKD1 PL domain recognizes phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PtdIns(4)P], FKD1-GFP co-localizes with PtdIns(4)P markers, and is more cytosolic when in a background mutant for the PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolases CVP2 and CVL1. Both FKD1 and SFC partially co-localize with markers for the trans-Golgi network (TGN), at which endocytic and secretory pathways merge. FKD1-labeled punctae rarely co-localize with the endocytic marker FM4-64, suggesting that FKD1 is not involved primarily in the endocytic pathway. FKD1 and SFC co-localize with members of the RABA group of RAB-GTPases, which are proposed to act in the post-Golgi secretory pathway. The compartments labeled by FKD1 and SFC do not localize to membrane compartments induced by the fungal toxin brefeldin A (BFA). Collectively, our data suggest that FKD1 and SFC act in a BFA-insensitive secretory pathway.


FORKED1; PIN1 localization; RABA; SCARFACE/VAN3; leaf vein patterning; secretory pathway; vascular differentiation

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