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Indian J Med Res. 2017 Jan;145(1):28-32. doi: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_199_15.

Coexistence of celiac disease & type 1 diabetes mellitus in children.

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Department of Pediatrics, Lady Hardinge Medical College, Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital, New Delhi, India.



Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and celiac disease (CD) tend to co-exist due to similar underlying genetic predisposition. Failure to recognize CD in patients with T1DM predisposes them to complications. The present study was aimed to assess children with T1DM for the presence of CD.


This was a retrospective analysis of the records of children with T1DM attending paediatric endocrinology clinic at a tertiary care hospital in north India from January 2006 to May 2014. All children were screened for CD at the time of diagnosis of T1DM using IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) levels in serum. Seropositive children were subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and duodenal biopsy for histopathological confirmation. The children also underwent thyroid function testing (TFT); those with deranged TFT were evaluated for thyroid-specific antibodies.


Positive serology for CD was present in 43 of 126 children with T1DM whose records were reviewed [34.1%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 25.9-43.1]. Confirmed CD was diagnosed in 17 (13.5%; CI: 8.1-20.7) of the children screened and 17 of 40 (42.5%; CI: 27.1-59.1) seropositive participants. Four out of 17 children with coexisting CD and T1DM also had autoimmune thyroiditis with overt hypothyroidism. The children with confirmed CD were more likely to have short stature [odds ratios (OR)-3.16; 95% CI: 1.09-9.20, P<0.05] and hypothyroidism (OR-6.4; 95% CI: 1.52-26.90, P<0.05).


Our study showed a higher proportion of CD in children with T1DM as compared to that reported in general population. Regular screening of children with T1DM for CD is needed to improve metabolic control and prevent long-term complications.

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