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J Clin Diagn Res. 2017 Apr;11(4):VC04-VC07. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2017/24352.9616. Epub 2017 Apr 1.

Relationship between Maternal General and Specific-Pregnancy Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Symptoms and Pregnancy Outcome.

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Postgraduate Student, Department of Psychology, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Mazanderan, Iran.
Associate Professor, PhD of Psychology, Midwifery Department, Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center, Health Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.



Despite scientific advances in the field of physical problems during pregnancy, the effect of mental problems on the health of pregnant women is still an important issue that needs further research.


To determine the association of symptoms of stress, anxiety and depression during pregnancy and there effect on the pregnancy outcome.


This was a descriptive correlational study. The population included 200 pregnant women of the urban and rural health centers affiliated with Babol University of Medical Sciences. There were 100 each in second and third trimester. Convenience multi stage cluster sampling was performed. Data collection was received through the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), Pregnancy Distress Questionnaire (PDQ), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) questionnaires.


The correlation results showed a significant difference between variables of depression, stress, and anxiety with birth weight, birth height and head circumference and infants' APGAR score (p<0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that interpersonal relationships on prediction of infant weight (B=-0.324), anxiety on prediction of infant height (B=-0.197), stress on prediction of head circumference (B=-0.350) and depression on prediction of APGAR score (B=-0.323) are effective (p<0.001).


The findings emphasize the need to identify women with depression, anxiety and stress in pregnancy, and scheduling to avoid adverse consequences of the pregnancy outcome.


Hospital anxiety depression scale; Low birth weight; Preterm labour

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