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Lancet. 2017 May 27;389(10084):2139-2151. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31329-6.

Management of patients at risk of acute kidney injury.

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Renal Division, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
Medical Clinic V, Nephrology, Hypertension and Blood Purification, Academic Teaching Hospital Braunschweig, Braunschweig, Germany.
Department of Medicine 1, Nephrology, Transplantation and Medical Intensive Care, University Witten/Herdecke, Medical Centre Cologne Merheim, Cologne, Germany.
Renal Division, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address:


Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a multifaceted syndrome that occurs in different settings. The course of AKI can be variable, from single hit and complete recovery, to multiple hits resulting in end-stage renal disease. No interventions to improve outcomes of established AKI have yet been developed, so prevention and early diagnosis are key. Awareness campaigns and education for health-care professionals on diagnosis and management of AKI-with attention to avoidance of volume depletion, hypotension, and nephrotoxic interventions-coupled with electronic early warning systems where available can improve outcomes. Biomarker-based strategies have not shown improvements in outcome. Fluid management should aim for early, rapid restoration of circulatory volume, but should be more limited after the first 24-48 h to avoid volume overload. Use of balanced crystalloid solutions versus normal saline remains controversial. Renal replacement therapy should only be started on the basis of hard criteria, but should not be delayed when criteria are met. On the basis of recent evidence, the risk of contrast-induced AKI might be overestimated for many conditions.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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