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BMC Pulm Med. 2017 May 30;17(1):87. doi: 10.1186/s12890-017-0430-6.

Evaluation of gene xpert for routine diagnosis of HIV-associated tuberculosis in Nigeria: A prospective cohort study.

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Institute of Public Health and Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.
Department of Medicine, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria.
Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.
Department of Medicine, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria.
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Jos, Jos, PL, Nigeria.
AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN) Center, Jos University Teaching Hospital, Jos, PL, Nigeria.
AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN), Abuja, Nigeria.
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA.



Xpert MTB/Rif (Xpert) is described as a game changer in tuberculosis (TB) control. We evaluated the impact of Xpert on diagnosis, time to treatment, and treatment outcome among patients with HIV associated TB in Nigeria.


Adults with HIV being evaluated for pulmonary TB (PTB) were consecutively enrolled into the study cohort. At baseline, expectorated sputa were examined using Xpert and smear microscopy for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and acid fast bacilli, respectively. Patients diagnosed with TB were followed-up until 6 months post TB diagnosis. TB was defined as sputum positive by smear microscopy, Xpert detection of MTB (bacteriologically confirmed case), or clinician diagnosed TB with initiation of full TB treatment (clinical diagnosis). Time to treatment was time from first clinic presentation for TB evaluation to initiation of TB treatment. We examined the proportion PTB patients with a positive Xpert result and compared time to TB treatment and outcome of TB treatment in patients based on sputum test results.


A total of 310 adults with HIV were enrolled. The median CD4 cell count was 242 (interquartile range (IQR) 120-425) cells/mm3 and 88.1% were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). PTB was diagnosed in 76 (24.5%) patients, with 71 (93.4%) being bacteriologically confirmed. Among patients with PTB, 56 (73.7%) were Xpert positive. Median time to treatment was 5 (IQR 2-8) days and 12 (IQR 5-35) days in patient with and without Xpert positive results, respectively; p = 0.005. Overall 73.1% had symptom free survival at 6 months post PTB treatment initiation with no significant differences observed based on TB test method. 10 (14.9%) died within 6 months of TB treatment initiation. In analysis adjusted for age, sex, and mode of diagnosis (Xpert positive or negative), only ART use independently predicted mortality (AOR 0.10; 95% CI 0.01-0.93).


The use of Xpert for routine care reduced time to PTB treatment, but did not improve survival in patients with HIV treated for susceptible PTB.


Africa; HIV; Nigeria; Outcomes research; Tuberculosis; Xpert

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