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Diabetes Technol Ther. 2017 Jul;19(7):423-432. doi: 10.1089/dia.2016.0460. Epub 2017 May 30.

Faster Use and Fewer Failures with Needle-Free Nasal Glucagon Versus Injectable Glucagon in Severe Hypoglycemia Rescue: A Simulation Study.

Author information

1
1 McGill Department of Medicine, McGill University Health Center, McGill University , Montréal, Québec, Canada .
2
2 Locemia Solutions , Montréal, Canada .
3
3 Core Human Factors, Inc. , Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania, PA.
4
4 Formerly Core Human Factors, Inc. , Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania, PA.
5
5 Eli Lilly Canada, Inc. , Toronto, Ontario, Canada .
6
6 Eli Lilly and Company , Indianapolis, IN.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

During severe hypoglycemic episodes, people with diabetes depend on others to help with treatment. We compared needle-free nasal glucagon and commercially available injectable glucagon for ease of use by caregivers of people with diabetes and by others in treating simulated episodes of severe hypoglycemia.

METHODS:

Sixteen instructed caregivers and 15 noninstructed acquaintances administered nasal and injectable glucagon to manikins, simulating unconscious people with diabetes during severe hypoglycemia episodes.

RESULTS:

With nasal glucagon, 15 caregivers (94%) and 14 acquaintances (93%) administered a full dose (mean time 0.27 and 0.44 min, respectively). One caregiver and one acquaintance did not administer nasal glucagon because they did not fully depress the plunger on the device. Two caregivers deliberately administered both insulin and nasal glucagon, believing that insulin would also help the patient. With injectable glucagon, eight caregivers (50%) injected glucagon (mean time 1.89 min), but only two (13%) administered the full dose. Three acquaintances (20%) injected a partial dose of injectable glucagon (mean time 2.40 min); none gave a full dose. Errors included injecting diluent only, bending the needle, and injecting with an empty syringe. Two caregivers and one acquaintance injected insulin because they confused insulin with injectable glucagon.

CONCLUSIONS:

More than 90% of participants delivered full doses of nasal glucagon, while 13% and 0% of caregivers and acquaintances delivered full doses of injectable glucagon, indicating that nasal glucagon is easier for nonmedically trained people to administer. Thus, nasal glucagon has the potential to substantially improve treatment for patients experiencing a life-threatening episode of severe hypoglycemia.

KEYWORDS:

Human factors; Hypoglycemia; Injectable glucagon; Nasal glucagon

PMID:
28556672
PMCID:
PMC5563859
DOI:
10.1089/dia.2016.0460
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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