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Contact Dermatitis. 2017 Oct;77(4):231-241. doi: 10.1111/cod.12809. Epub 2017 May 29.

Sensitization and cross-reactivity patterns of contact allergy to diisocyanates and corresponding amines: investigation of diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate, diphenylmethane-4,4'-diamine, dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate, and dicylohexylmethane-4,4'-diamine.

Author information

1
Lund University, Department of Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, Skåne University Hospital, 205 02, Malmö, Sweden.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Isocyanates are used in polyurethane production. Dermal exposure to isocyanates can induce contact allergy. The most common isocyanate is diphenylmethane diisocyanate used for industrial purposes. The isomer diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (4,4'-MDI) is used in patch testing. Diphenylmethane-4,4'-diamine (4,4'-MDA) is its corresponding amine. Concurrent reactions to 4,4'-MDI and 4,4'-MDA have been reported, as have concurrent reactions to 4,4'-MDI and dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (4,4'-DMDI).

OBJECTIVES:

To investigate the sensitization capacities and the cross-reactivity of 4,4'-MDI, 4,4'-MDA, 4,4'-DMDI, and dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diamine (4,4'-DMDA).

METHODS:

The guinea-pig maximization test (GPMT) was used.

RESULTS:

The GPMT showed sensitizing capacities for all investigated substances: 4,4'-MDI, 4,4'-MDA, 4,4'-DMDI, and 4,4'-DMDA (all p < 0.001). 4,4'-MDI-sensitized animals showed cross-reactivity to 4,4'-MDA (p < 0.001) and 4,4'-DMDI (all p < 0.05). 4,4'-MDA-sensitized animals showed cross-reactivity to 4,4'-DMDA (p = 0.008).

CONCLUSION:

All of the investigated substances were shown to be strong sensitizers. Animals sensitized to 4,4'-MDI showed cross-reactivity to 4,4'-MDA and 4,4'-DMDI, supporting previous findings in the literature. The aromatic amine 4,4'-MDA showed cross-reactivity to the aliphatic amine 4,4'-DMDA.

KEYWORDS:

4,4′-DMDA; 4,4′-DMDI; 4,4′-MDA; 4,4′-MDI; allergic contact dermatitis; amines; cross-reactions; guinea-pig maximization test; isocyanates; occupational

PMID:
28555927
PMCID:
PMC5599955
DOI:
10.1111/cod.12809
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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