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J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2017 Dec;12(4):593-601. doi: 10.1007/s11481-017-9752-7. Epub 2017 May 29.

Blood Brain Barrier Injury in Diabetes: Unrecognized Effects on Brain and Cognition.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 19140, USA.
2
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 19140, USA. yuri.persidsky@tuhs.temple.edu.
3
Center for Substance Abuse Research, Temple University Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 19140, USA. yuri.persidsky@tuhs.temple.edu.

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disorder due to the inability properly to metabolize glucose associated with dysregulation of metabolic pathways of lipids and proteins resulting in structural and functional changes of various organ systems. DM has detrimental effects on the vasculature, resulting in the development of various cardiovascular diseases and stemming from microvascular injury. The blood brain barrier (BBB) is a highly specialized structure protecting the unique microenvironment of the brain. Endothelial cells, connected by junctional complexes and expressing numerous transporters, constitute the main cell type in the BBB. Other components, including pericytes, basement membrane, astrocytes and perivascular macrophages, join endothelial cells to form the neurovascular unit (NVU) and contribute to the proper function and integrity of the BBB. The role of the BBB in the pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy and other diabetes-related complications in the central nervous system is apparent. However, the mechanisms, timing and consequences of BBB injury in diabetes are not well understood. The importance of further studies related to barrier dysfunction in diabetes is dictated by its potential involvement in the cognitive demise associated with DM. This review summarizes the impact of DM on BBB/NVU integrity and function leading to neurological and cognitive complications.

KEYWORDS:

Blood brain barrier; Cognitive impairment; Diabetes; Endothelial cell; Neuroinflammation; Pericyte

PMID:
28555373
PMCID:
PMC5693692
DOI:
10.1007/s11481-017-9752-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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