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J Surg Res. 2017 May 15;212:178-186. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2017.01.015. Epub 2017 Jan 28.

Socioeconomic factors and mortality in emergency general surgery: trends over a 20-year period.

Author information

1
Department of Surgery, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey.
2
Department of Surgery, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey. Electronic address: Aziz.merchant@rutgers.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Socioeconomic factors such as race, insurance, and income quartiles have been identified as independent risk factors in emergency general surgery (EGS), but this impact has not been studied over time. We sought to identify trends in disparities in EGS-related operative mortality over a 20-y period.

METHODS:

The National Inpatient Sample was used to identify patient encounters coded for EGS in 1993, 2003, and 2013. Logistic regression models were used to examine the adjusted relationship between race, primary payer status, and median income quartiles and in-hospital mortality after adjusting for patients' age, gender, Elixhauser comorbidity score, and hospital region, size, and location-cum-teaching status.

RESULTS:

We identified 391,040 patient encounters. In 1993, Black race was associated with higher odds of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.35 [1.20-1.53]) than White race, although this difference dissipated in subsequent years. Medicare, Medicaid, and underinsured patients had a higher odds of mortality than those with private insurance for the entire 20-y period; only the disparity in the underinsured decreased over time (1993, 1.63 [1.35-1.98]; 2013, 1.41 [1.20-1.67]). In 2003 (1.23 [1.10-1.38]) and 2013 (1.23 [1.11-1.37]), patients from the lowest income quartile were more likely to die after EGS than patients from the highest income quartile.

CONCLUSIONS:

Socioeconomic disparities in EGS-related operative morality followed inconsistent trends. Over time, while gaps in in-hospital mortality among Blacks and Whites have narrowed, disparities among patients belonging to lowest income quartile have worsened. Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries continued to experience higher odds of in-hospital mortality relative to those with private insurance.

KEYWORDS:

Emergency general surgery; Healthcare disparities; In-hospital mortality; Risk factors; Socioeconomic status; Surgical outcomes

PMID:
28550905
DOI:
10.1016/j.jss.2017.01.015
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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