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J Nutr Metab. 2017;2017:1909101. doi: 10.1155/2017/1909101. Epub 2017 May 4.

Amino Acid Medical Foods Provide a High Dietary Acid Load and Increase Urinary Excretion of Renal Net Acid, Calcium, and Magnesium Compared with Glycomacropeptide Medical Foods in Phenylketonuria.

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1
Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.
2
Department of Medicine, Divisions of Endocrinology and Geriatrics, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.
3
Department of Medicine, Divisions of Rheumatology and Endocrinology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.

Abstract

Background. Skeletal fragility is a complication of phenylketonuria (PKU). A diet containing amino acids compared with glycomacropeptide reduces bone size and strength in mice. Objective. We tested the hypothesis that amino acid medical foods (AA-MF) provide a high dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary excretion of renal net acid, calcium, and magnesium, compared to glycomacropeptide medical foods (GMP-MF). Design. In a crossover design, 8 participants with PKU (16-35 y) provided food records and 24-hr urine samples after consuming a low-Phe diet in combination with AA-MF and GMP-MF for 1-3 wks. We calculated potential renal acid load (PRAL) of AA-MF and GMP-MF and determined bone mineral density (BMD) measurements using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Results. AA-MF provided 1.5-2.5-fold higher PRAL and resulted in 3-fold greater renal net acid excretion compared to GMP-MF (p = 0.002). Dietary protein, calcium, and magnesium intake were similar. GMP-MF significantly reduced urinary excretion of calcium by 40% (p = 0.012) and magnesium by 30% (p = 0.029). Two participants had low BMD-for-age and trabecular bone scores, indicating microarchitectural degradation. Urinary calcium with AA-MF negatively correlated with L1-L4 BMD. Conclusion. Compared to GMP-MF, AA-MF increase dietary acid load, subsequently increasing urinary calcium and magnesium excretion, and likely contributing to skeletal fragility in PKU. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01428258.

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