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Gac Sanit. 2018 Sep - Oct;32(5):418-424. doi: 10.1016/j.gaceta.2017.02.008. Epub 2017 May 22.

[Fluoride intake through consumption of water from municipal network in the INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort].

[Article in Spanish]

Author information

1
Subdirección de Salud Pública y Adicciones de Gipuzkoa, Departamento de Salud del Gobierno Vasco, Donostia-San Sebastián, España; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria BIODONOSTIA, Donostia-San Sebastián, España.
2
Subdirección de Salud Pública y Adicciones de Gipuzkoa, Departamento de Salud del Gobierno Vasco, Donostia-San Sebastián, España; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria BIODONOSTIA, Donostia-San Sebastián, España; CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), España. Electronic address: ambien4ss-san@euskadi.eus.
3
Subdirección de Salud Pública y Adicciones de Gipuzkoa, Departamento de Salud del Gobierno Vasco, Donostia-San Sebastián, España.
4
Facultad de Farmacia, Departamento de Ingenieria Química, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), España.
5
Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria BIODONOSTIA, Donostia-San Sebastián, España; Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva y Salud Pública, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), España.
6
Laboratorio de Salud Pública de Gipuzkoa, Departamento de Salud del Gobierno Vasco, Donostia-San Sebastián, España.
7
CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), España.
8
Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria BIODONOSTIA, Donostia-San Sebastián, España.
9
Subdirección de Salud Pública y Adicciones de Gipuzkoa, Departamento de Salud del Gobierno Vasco, Donostia-San Sebastián, España; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria BIODONOSTIA, Donostia-San Sebastián, España; CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), España; Facultad de Psicología, Departamento de Procesos psicológicos básicos y su desarrollo, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), España.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To estimate fluoride intake through consumption of water from the municipal network in pregnant women and their children from the INMA-Gipuzkoa cohort and to compare these intakes with recommended levels. In Euskadi (Spain), fluoridation of drinking water is compulsory in water supplies for more than 30,000 inhabitants.

METHOD:

575 pregnant women (recruitment, 2006-2008) and 424 4-year-old children (follow-up, 2010-2012) have been included. Fluoride levels in drinking water were obtained from the water consumption information system of the Basque Country (EKUIS). Water consumption habits and socioeconomic variables were obtained by questionnaire.

RESULTS:

74.9% and 87.7% of women and children consumed water from the municipal network. Average fluoride levels in fluoridated water were 0.805 (SD: 0.194) mg/L during baseline recruitment and 0.843 (SD: 0.080) mg/L during follow up, at 4 years old of the children. Average and 95th percentile of fluoride intake were 0.015 and 0.026mg/kg per day in women and 0.033 and 0.059mg/kg per day in children. Considering only fluoride provided by drinking water, 8.71% of children living in fluoridated areas exceeded intake level recommended by the European Food Safety Authority, consisting in 0.05mg/kg per day.

CONCLUSION:

The results show that ingested levels of fluoride through consumption of municipal water can exceed the recommended levels in children and encourages further studies that will help in fluoridation policies of drinking water in the future.

KEYWORDS:

Aguas de consumo; Childhood; Cohort study; Drinking water; Embarazo; Estudio de cohortes; Exposición humana; Fluoride; Flúor; Human exposure; INMA; Infancia; Pregnancy

PMID:
28545738
DOI:
10.1016/j.gaceta.2017.02.008
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