Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Hum Psychopharmacol. 2017 May;32(3). doi: 10.1002/hup.2582. Epub 2017 May 24.

Changing trends in the use of kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) in Southeast Asia.

Author information

1
Centre for Drug Research, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugor, Penang, Malaysia.
2
School of Social Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugor, Penang, Malaysia.
3
Centre for Clinical & Health Research Services, School of Life and Medical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane Campus, Hatfield, UK.
4
Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, Gabriele D'Annunzio University of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy.
5
Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa. Korth) is an indigenous medicinal plant of Southeast Asia. This review paper aims to describe the trends of kratom use in Southeast Asia.

DESIGN:

A literature review search was conducted through ScienceDirect, Scopus, ProMed and Google Scholar. Twenty-five articles illustrating kratom use in humans in Southeast Asia were reviewed.

RESULTS:

Kratom has long been used by rural populations in Southeast Asia as a remedy for common ailments, to fight fatigue from hard manual work, as a drink during social interaction among men, and in village religious functions. Studies based on self-reports suggest that prolonged kratom use does not result in serious health risks or impair social functioning. Two recent trends have also emerged: (a) Kratom is reportedly being used to ease withdrawal from opioid dependence in rural settings; whereas (b) in urban areas, adulterated kratom cocktails are being consumed by younger people to induce euphoria.

CONCLUSIONS:

Legal sanctions appear to have preceded serious scientific investigations into the claimed benefits of ketum. More objective-controlled trials and experiments on humans need to be conducted to validate self-report claims by kratom users in the community.

KEYWORDS:

Malaysia; Thailand; kratom; mitragynine; opiate

PMID:
28544011
DOI:
10.1002/hup.2582
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center