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IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2017 Nov;25(11):2180-2187. doi: 10.1109/TNSRE.2017.2705661. Epub 2017 May 18.

Cortical Brain-Computer Interface for Closed-Loop Deep Brain Stimulation.


Essential tremor is the most common neurological movement disorder. This progressive disease causes uncontrollable rhythmic motions-most often affecting the patient'sdominant upper extremity-thatoccur during volitional movement and make it difficult for the patient to perform everyday tasks. Medication may also become ineffective as the disorder progresses. For many patients, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus is an effective means of treating this condition when medication fails. In current use, however, clinicians set the patient's stimulator to apply stimulation at all times-whether it is needed or not. This practice leads to excess power use, and more rapid depletion of batteries that require surgical replacement. In this paper, for the first time, neural sensing of movement (using chronically implanted cortical electrodes) is used to enable or disable stimulation for tremor. Therapeutic stimulation is delivered onlywhen the patient is actively using their effected limb, thereby reducing the total stimulation applied, and potentially extending the lifetime of surgically implanted batteries. This paper, which involves both implanted and external subsystems, paves the way for fully-implanted closed-loop DBS in the future.

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