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Pharmacognosy Res. 2017 Apr-Jun;9(2):208-214. doi: 10.4103/0974-8490.204643.

Botanical and Chemical Fingerprinting of Medicinal Roots of Justicia gendarussa Burm f.

Author information

1
UNESCO- Trace Element Satellite Center, School of Studies in Zoology, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India.
2
School of Studies in Biochemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India.
3
SDM Center of Research in Ayurveda and Allied Sciences, Laxminarayana Nagar, Kuthpady, Udupi, Karnataka, India.
4
Department of Pharmacognosy, Siddha Central Research Institute, Arumbakkam, Chennai, India.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Justicia gendarussa Burm f. of family Acanthaceae is medicinally important herb used in the treatment of inflammatory disorders, asthma, hepatic injuries, pathogenic infection and also shows antiproliferative activity against various cancer cell lines.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Pharmacognostical evaluation (macro-microscopy, physicochemical analysis and preliminary phytochemical analysis), high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprinting and chemical profiling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) of dried roots of J. gendarussa were done according to quality standard procedures.

RESULTS:

Microscopic analysis revealed the compact arrangement of cells in cork region and thin-walled cortex beneath epidermis. Parenchymatous cells with xylem vessel were observed in the roots of J. gendarussa. Physicochemical studies revealed loss on drying (10.474%), total ash (2.990%), acid-insoluble ash (0.099%), water-soluble ash (1.528%), alcohol-soluble extractive value (0.564%) and water-soluble extractive value (4.11%) of the raw drug. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of J. gendarussa showed the presence of alkaloid, steroid, flavonoid, phenol, carbohydrate, saponin and quinone. Rf, color of the spots and densitometric scan were recorded by HPTLC fingerprinting using toluene: ethyl acetate: formic acid (5.0:4.0:1.0). On photodocumentation, six spots were visualized under 254 nm, nine spots under 360 nm and six spots at 620 nm. Identification of components in ethanolic extract of J. gendarussa was done by GC-MS. GC-MS results in the presence of oleic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, 6,9,12-octadecatrienoic acid and estra-1, 3,5 (10)-trein-17-β-ol in ethanolic extract of J. gendarussa.

CONCLUSION:

These specific identities will be useful in identification and authentication of the raw drug in dried form.

SUMMARY:

Transverse section and powder of dried roots of Justicia gendarussa were examined microscopically. Microscopic observations showed the presence of well-developed cork and cortex. Presence of xylem vessels and parenchymatic rays were observed in transverse section. Parenchymatous cell and sclereids with vessel elements were found in powder microscopyPhysicochemical studies revealed loss on drying (10.474%), total ash (2.990%), acid-insoluble ash (0.099%), water-soluble ash (1.528%), alcohol-soluble extract (0.564%) and water-soluble extract (4.11%)Preliminary phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of J. gendarussa showed the presence of alkaloid, steroid, flavonoid, phenol, carbohydrate, saponin and quinoneHigh-performance thin layer chromatography fingerprinting showed different peaks at different wavelengthChemical profiling of medicinal roots of J. gendarussa by gas chromatography. mass spectrometry revealed the presence of oleic acid, 9,12.octadecadienoic acid, 6,9,12-octadecatrienoic acid and estra-1,3,5 (10)-trein-17-β-ol as bioactive compound. Abbreviations Used: TLC: Thin layer chromatography; HPTLC: High performance thin layer chromatography; GCMS: Gas chromatography-mass specrtometry; QSIMP: Quality standard of indian medicinal plant; LOD: Loss on drying; TA: Total ash; AIA: Acid insoluble ash; WSA: Water soluble ash; ASE: Alcohol soluble extractive; WSE: Water soluble extractive.

KEYWORDS:

Gas chromatography-mass specrtometry analysis; Justicia gendarussa; high-performance thin layer chromatography fingerprinting; pharmacognostic; quality control

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