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Nature. 2017 Jun 15;546(7658):411-415. doi: 10.1038/nature22402. Epub 2017 May 24.

Zika virus evolution and spread in the Americas.

Author information

1
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
2
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
3
Center for Systems Biology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
4
Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
5
Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
6
Harvard University Extension School, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
7
National Institute of Infectious Diseases Evandro Chagas, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
8
Laboratório de AIDS e Imunologia Molecular, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
9
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, Florida, USA.
10
Miami-Dade County Mosquito Control, Miami, Florida, USA.
11
Bureau of Public Health Laboratories, Division of Disease Control and Health Protection, Florida Department of Health, Tampa, Florida, USA.
12
Department of Microbiology, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston, Jamaica.
13
Instituto de Investigacion en Microbiologia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Honduras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
14
Grupo de Epidemiología Clínica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia.
15
Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.
16
Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, USA.
17
Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA.
18
Scripps Translational Science Institute, La Jolla, California, USA.
19
Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3FL, UK.
20
Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
21
Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
22
Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
23
Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA.
24
Department of Biostatistics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
25
Institute for Tropical Biology Research, Universidad de Córdoba, Montería, Córdoba, Colombia.
26
Department of Osteopathic Medical Specialties, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michegan, USA.
27
FIOCRUZ, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Laboratório de Genômica Funcional e Bioinformática, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
28
Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
29
Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA.
30
D'Or Institute for Research and Education, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
31
National Institute for Science and Technology on Innovation on Neglected Diseases, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
32
Center for Technological Development in Health, FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
33
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland, USA.

Abstract

Although the recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in the Americas and its link to birth defects have attracted a great deal of attention, much remains unknown about ZIKV disease epidemiology and ZIKV evolution, in part owing to a lack of genomic data. Here we address this gap in knowledge by using multiple sequencing approaches to generate 110 ZIKV genomes from clinical and mosquito samples from 10 countries and territories, greatly expanding the observed viral genetic diversity from this outbreak. We analysed the timing and patterns of introductions into distinct geographic regions; our phylogenetic evidence suggests rapid expansion of the outbreak in Brazil and multiple introductions of outbreak strains into Puerto Rico, Honduras, Colombia, other Caribbean islands, and the continental United States. We find that ZIKV circulated undetected in multiple regions for many months before the first locally transmitted cases were confirmed, highlighting the importance of surveillance of viral infections. We identify mutations with possible functional implications for ZIKV biology and pathogenesis, as well as those that might be relevant to the effectiveness of diagnostic tests.

PMID:
28538734
PMCID:
PMC5563848
DOI:
10.1038/nature22402
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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