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Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2017 Jun;44:159-166. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2017.05.004. Epub 2017 May 21.

The menagerie of the basal forebrain: how many (neural) species are there, what do they look like, how do they behave and who talks to whom?

Author information

1
Psychiatry, VA BHS and Harvard Medical School, West Roxbury, MA, 02132, USA.
2
Psychiatry, VA BHS and Harvard Medical School, West Roxbury, MA, 02132, USA. Electronic address: Robert_McCarley@hms.harvard.edu.
3
Psychiatry, VA BHS and Harvard Medical School, West Roxbury, MA, 02132, USA. Electronic address: Ritchie_Brown@hms.harvard.edu.

Abstract

The diverse cell-types of the basal forebrain control sleep-wake states, cortical activity and reward processing. Large, slow-firing, cholinergic neurons suppress cortical delta activity and promote cortical plasticity in response to reinforcers. Large, fast-firing, cortically-projecting GABAergic neurons promote wakefulness and fast cortical activity. In particular, parvalbumin/GABAergic neurons promote neocortical gamma band activity. Conversely, excitation of slower-firing somatostatin/GABAergic neurons promotes sleep through inhibition of cortically-projecting neurons. Activation of glutamatergic neurons promotes wakefulness, likely by exciting other cortically-projecting neurons. Similarly, cholinergic neurons indirectly promote wakefulness by excitation of wake-promoting, cortically-projecting GABAergic neurons and/or inhibition of sleep-promoting somatostatin/GABAergic neurons. Both glia and neurons increase the levels of adenosine during prolonged wakefulness. Adenosine presynaptically inhibits glutamatergic inputs to wake-promoting cholinergic and GABAergic/parvalbumin neurons, promoting sleep.

PMID:
28538168
PMCID:
PMC5525536
DOI:
10.1016/j.conb.2017.05.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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