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Cancer Nurs. 2017 May 19. doi: 10.1097/NCC.0000000000000505. [Epub ahead of print]

Translation and Cultural Adaptation of the Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment: An Interdisciplinary Nutritional Instrument Appropriate for Dutch Cancer Patients.

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Author affiliations: Research Group Healthy Ageing, Allied Health Care and Nursing, Hanze University of Applied Sciences, Groningen, the Netherlands (Mss Sealy and Haß and Drs Ottery, van der Schans, and Jager-Wittenaar); Ottery & Associates, LLC, Oncology Care Consultants, Vernon Hills, Chicago, Illinois (Dr Ottery); and Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (Ms Sealy and Drs Roodenburg and Jager-Wittenaar) and Rehabilitation Medicine and Health Psychology Research (Dr van der Schans), University of Groningen, University Medical Center, the Netherlands.



Assessment of malnutrition is important in cancer patients. The Scored Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA), an instrument that enables interdisciplinary assessment of malnutrition and its risk factors, was not available in Dutch.


Translation and cultural adaption of the original English PG-SGA to the Dutch setting.


The PG-SGA was translated and culturally adapted, following the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research principles. Perceived content validity, comprehensibility, and difficulty were explored among a multidisciplinary sample of healthcare professionals and their cancer patients. Content validity, comprehensibility, and difficulty were operationalized by calculating item and scale indices. On scale level, indices of 0.80 to 0.90 were considered acceptable, and indices of 0.90 or greater were considered excellent.


Consensus was reached on 91 and 8 differences in the forward and back translations, respectively. Scale Content Validity Index was 0.89. Scale Comprehensibility Index and Scale Difficulty Index of the patient-generated component of the PG-SGA were 0.99 and 0.96, respectively. Scale Comprehensibility Index and Scale Difficulty Index of the professional component were 0.81 and 0.55, respectively.


Translation and cultural adaptation of the PG-SGA according to the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research principles resulted in a Dutch version that maintained the purpose, meaning, and format and have acceptable content validity. Now a Dutch version of the PG-SGA is available that is considered comprehensible and easy by patients, and comprehensible and relevant by professionals. However, the professional component was considered difficult by the PG-SGA-naive professionals, which indicates a need for training.


A similar systematic approach for future translations of the PG-SGA is recommended, to safeguard cultural equivalence.

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