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J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017 Jul 28;27(7):1257-1265. doi: 10.4014/jmb.1704.04033.

Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Leaf Extracts Protect Neuronal PC-12 Cells from Oxidative Stress.

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Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Republic of Korea.
Damtuh Co., Ltd., Seoul 06561, Republic of Korea.
Biocenter, Gyeonggido Business and Science Accelerator, Suwon 16229, Republic of Korea.
Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Republic of Korea.
Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus), Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea.


The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidative and neuroprotective effects of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaves (SBL) harvested at different times. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed five major phenolic compounds: ellagic acid, gallic acid, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin. SBL harvested in August had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity. Treatment of neuronal PC-12 cells with the ethyl acetate fraction of SBL harvested in August increased their viability and membrane integrity and reduced intracellular oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. The relative populations of both early and late apoptotic PC-12 cells were decreased by treatment with the SBL ethyl acetate fraction, based on flow cytometry analysis using annexin V-FITC/PI staining. These findings suggest that SBL can serve as a good source of antioxidants and medicinal agents that attenuate oxidative stress.


Antioxidant capacity; apoptosis; flow cytometry; high-performance liquid chromatography; total flavonoids; total phenolics

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