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Nutrients. 2017 May 19;9(5). pii: E517. doi: 10.3390/nu9050517.

Effects of Ketogenic Diets on Cardiovascular Risk Factors: Evidence from Animal and Human Studies.

Author information

1
Service of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Avenue de la Sallaz 8, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland. christophe.kosinski@chuv.ch.
2
Service of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Hypertension and Nutrition, Geneva University Hospitals, Rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil 4, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland. ois.jornayvaz@hcuge.ch.

Abstract

The treatment of obesity and cardiovascular diseases is one of the most difficult and important challenges nowadays. Weight loss is frequently offered as a therapy and is aimed at improving some of the components of the metabolic syndrome. Among various diets, ketogenic diets, which are very low in carbohydrates and usually high in fats and/or proteins, have gained in popularity. Results regarding the impact of such diets on cardiovascular risk factors are controversial, both in animals and humans, but some improvements notably in obesity and type 2 diabetes have been described. Unfortunately, these effects seem to be limited in time. Moreover, these diets are not totally safe and can be associated with some adverse events. Notably, in rodents, development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance have been described. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of ketogenic diets on different cardiovascular risk factors in both animals and humans based on available evidence.

KEYWORDS:

NAFLD; cardiovascular risk factors; fibroblast growth factor (FGF21); insulin resistance; ketogenic diets; obesity; type 2 diabetes

PMID:
28534852
PMCID:
PMC5452247
DOI:
10.3390/nu9050517
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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