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Front Plant Sci. 2017 May 8;8:723. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.00723. eCollection 2017.

AaPDR3, a PDR Transporter 3, Is Involved in Sesquiterpene β-Caryophyllene Transport in Artemisia annua.

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Joint International Research Laboratory of Metabolic and Developmental Sciences, Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South) Ministry of Agriculture, Plant Biotechnology Research Center, Fudan-SJTU-Nottingham Plant Biotechnology R&D Center, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghai, China.


Artemisinin, a sesquiterpenoid endoperoxide, isolated from the plant Artemisia annua L., is widely used in the treatment of malaria. Another sesquiterpenoid, β-caryophyllene having antibiotic, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and local anesthetic activities, is also presented in A. annua. The role played by sesquiterpene transporters in trichomes and accumulation of these metabolites is poorly understood in A. annua and in trichomes of other plant species. We identified AaPDR3, encoding a pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) transporter located to the plasma membrane from A. annua. Expression of AaPDR3 is tissue-specifically and developmentally regulated in A. annua. GUS activity is primarily restricted to T-shaped trichomes of old leaves and roots of transgenic A. annua plants expressing proAaPDR3: GUS. The level of β-caryophyllene was decreased in transgenic A. annua plants expressing AaPDR3-RNAi while transgenic A. annua plants expressing increased levels of AaPDR3 accumulated higher levels of β-caryophyllene. When AaPDR3 was expressed in transformed yeast, yeasts expressing AaPDR3 accumulated more β-caryophyllene, rather than germacrene D and β-farnesene, compared to the non-expressing control.


ABC transporter; Artemisia annua L.; pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) transporter; sesquiterpene; β-caryophyllene

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