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Radiology. 2017 Oct;285(1):231-241. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2017162114. Epub 2017 May 22.

Splanchnic, Thoracoabdominal, and Cerebral Blood Flow Volumes in Healthy Children and Young Adults in Fasting and Postprandial States: Determining Reference Ranges by Using Phase-Contrast MR Imaging.

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From the Department of Diagnostic Imaging (P.M., S.J.Y., N.T., J.W., D.S., M.P., P.C.D., M.S., L.G.W., G.B.C.), Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics (S.J.Y., R.C., J.W., D.S., M.P., M.S., L.G.W.), and Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (S.C.L.), the Hospital For Sick Children, 555 University Ave, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1X8; and Departments of Medical Imaging (P.M., S.J.Y., P.C.D., M.S., L.G.W., G.B.C.), and Pediatrics (R.C., S.C.L.), University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.


Purpose To estimate reference ranges for blood flow volume (BFV) in major splanchnic, thoracoabdominal, and neck vessels by using phase-contrast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in children and young adults in fasting and postprandial states. Materials and Methods In this institutional research ethics board-approved prospective study, healthy volunteers underwent phase-contrast MR imaging in a fasting state and again after a standardized meal. BFV values were reported as medians and ranges, and postmeal to premeal BFV ratios were calculated. BFVs in volunteers divided into two groups according to age (≤18 years old and >18 years old) were compared by using the Mann-Whitney test adjusted for multiple comparisons. Linear regression for internal validation of BFV and Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman analysis for interobserver agreement were used. Results Reference ranges for BFVs were estimated in 39 volunteers (23 male and 16 female; mean age, 21.2 years ± 8.5; range, 9-40 years) and were indexed according to body surface area, with internal validation (R2 = 0.84-0.92) and excellent interobserver agreement (R2 = 0.9928). There was an almost 30% increase in total abdominal BFV (P < .0001) in response to a meal, which was the result of a threefold increase in superior mesenteric artery BFV (P < .0001). BFV after the meal remained unaffected in the celiac artery and cerebral circulation. Significantly higher normalized BFVs in the cerebral circulation were measured in children with both preprandial (P = .039) and postprandial (P = .008) status than those in adults. Conclusion Reference ranges for BFVs and changes in BFVs in response to a meal in major splanchnic, thoracoabdominal, and neck vessels were estimated by using phase-contrast MR imaging in healthy volunteers to allow hemodynamic assessment of children and young adults with various diseases. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

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