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J Immunol Res. 2017;2017:9361802. doi: 10.1155/2017/9361802. Epub 2017 Apr 26.

Getting "Inside" Type I IFNs: Type I IFNs in Intracellular Bacterial Infections.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT, USA.

Abstract

Type I interferons represent a unique and complex group of cytokines, serving many purposes during innate and adaptive immunity. Discovered in the context of viral infections, type I IFNs are now known to have myriad effects in infectious and autoimmune disease settings. Type I IFN signaling during bacterial infections is dependent on many factors including whether the infecting bacterium is intracellular or extracellular, as different signaling pathways are activated. As such, the repercussions of type I IFN induction can positively or negatively impact the disease outcome. This review focuses on type I IFN induction and downstream consequences during infection with the following intracellular bacteria: Chlamydia trachomatis, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Francisella tularensis, Brucella abortus, Legionella pneumophila, and Coxiella burnetii. Intracellular bacterial infections are unique because the bacteria must avoid, circumvent, and even co-opt microbial "sensing" mechanisms in order to reside and replicate within a host cell. Furthermore, life inside a host cell makes intracellular bacteria more difficult to target with antibiotics. Because type I IFNs are important immune effectors, modulating this pathway may improve disease outcomes. But first, it is critical to understand the context-dependent effects of the type I IFN pathway in intracellular bacterial infections.

PMID:
28529959
PMCID:
PMC5424489
DOI:
10.1155/2017/9361802
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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