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Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics. 2017 Jun;15(3):177-186. doi: 10.1016/j.gpb.2016.12.005. Epub 2017 May 19.

Transcriptional and Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation by Long Non-coding RNA.

Author information

1
School of Clinical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS2 8HW, United Kingdom. Electronic address: Iain.dykes@bristol.ac.uk.
2
School of Clinical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS2 8HW, United Kingdom; National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom.

Abstract

Advances in genomics technology over recent years have led to the surprising discovery that the genome is far more pervasively transcribed than was previously appreciated. Much of the newly-discovered transcriptome appears to represent long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), a heterogeneous group of largely uncharacterised transcripts. Understanding the biological function of these molecules represents a major challenge and in this review we discuss some of the progress made to date. One major theme of lncRNA biology seems to be the existence of a network of interactions with microRNA (miRNA) pathways. lncRNA has been shown to act as both a source and an inhibitory regulator of miRNA. At the transcriptional level, a model is emerging whereby lncRNA bridges DNA and protein by binding to chromatin and serving as a scaffold for modifying protein complexes. Such a mechanism can bridge promoters to enhancers or enhancer-like non-coding genes by regulating chromatin looping, as well as conferring specificity on histone modifying complexes by directing them to specific loci.

KEYWORDS:

Epigenetics; Long non-coding RNA; MicroRNA; Post-transcriptional regulation; Transcriptional regulation

PMID:
28529100
PMCID:
PMC5487525
DOI:
10.1016/j.gpb.2016.12.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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