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Curr Biol. 2017 Jun 5;27(11):1616-1622.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2017.04.034. Epub 2017 May 18.

Widespread Biological Response to Rapid Warming on the Antarctic Peninsula.

Author information

1
Geography, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, Devon EX4 4RJ, UK. Electronic address: m.j.amesbury@exeter.ac.uk.
2
Geography, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, Devon EX4 4RJ, UK.
3
Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB2 3EA, UK; British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB3 0ET, UK.
4
British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB3 0ET, UK; Department of Geography, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE, UK.
5
British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB3 0ET, UK.
6
Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire CB2 3EA, UK.

Abstract

Recent climate change on the Antarctic Peninsula is well documented [1-5], with warming, alongside increases in precipitation, wind strength, and melt season length [1, 6, 7], driving environmental change [8, 9]. However, meteorological records mostly began in the 1950s, and paleoenvironmental datasets that provide a longer-term context to recent climate change are limited in number and often from single sites [7] and/or discontinuous in time [10, 11]. Here we use moss bank cores from a 600-km transect from Green Island (65.3°S) to Elephant Island (61.1°S) as paleoclimate archives sensitive to regional temperature change, moderated by water availability and surface microclimate [12, 13]. Mosses grow slowly, but cold temperatures minimize decomposition, facilitating multi-proxy analysis of preserved peat [14]. Carbon isotope discrimination (Δ13C) in cellulose indicates the favorability of conditions for photosynthesis [15]. Testate amoebae are representative heterotrophs in peatlands [16-18], so their populations are an indicator of microbial productivity [14]. Moss growth and mass accumulation rates represent the balance between growth and decomposition [19]. Analyzing these proxies in five cores at three sites over 150 years reveals increased biological activity over the past ca. 50 years, in response to climate change. We identified significant changepoints in all sites and proxies, suggesting fundamental and widespread changes in the terrestrial biosphere. The regional sensitivity of moss growth to past temperature rises suggests that terrestrial ecosystems will alter rapidly under future warming, leading to major changes in the biology and landscape of this iconic region-an Antarctic greening to parallel well-established observations in the Arctic [20].

KEYWORDS:

Antarctic Peninsula; moss bank; productivity; recent change; sensitivity; stable isotopes; testate amoebae

PMID:
28528907
DOI:
10.1016/j.cub.2017.04.034
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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