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Lancet. 2017 Jul 15;390(10091):231-266. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30818-8. Epub 2017 May 18.

Healthcare Access and Quality Index based on mortality from causes amenable to personal health care in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2015: a novel analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.

Collaborators (696)

Barber RM, Fullman N, Sorensen RJD, Bollyky T, McKee M, Nolte E, Abajobir AA, Abate KH, Abbafati C, Abbas KM, Abd-Allah F, Abdulle AM, Abdurahman AA, Abera SF, Abraham B, Abreha GF, Adane K, Adelekan AL, Adetifa IMO, Afshin A, Agarwal A, Agarwal SK, Agarwal S, Agrawal A, Kiadaliri AA, Ahmadi A, Ahmed KY, Ahmed MB, Akinyemi RO, Akinyemiju TF, Akseer N, Al-Aly Z, Alam K, Alam N, Alam SS, Alemu ZA, Alene KA, Alexander L, Ali R, Ali SD, Alizadeh-Navaei R, Alkerwi A, Alla F, Allebeck P, Allen C, Al-Raddadi R, Alsharif U, Altirkawi KA, Martin EA, Alvis-Guzman N, Amare AT, Amini E, Ammar W, Amo-Adjei J, Amoako YA, Anderson BO, Androudi S, Ansari H, Ansha MG, Antonio CAT, Ärnlöv J, Artaman A, Asayesh H, Assadi R, Astatkie A, Atey TM, Atique S, Atnafu NT, Atre SR, Avila-Burgos L, Avokpaho EFGA, Quintanilla BPA, Awasthi A, Ayele NN, Azzopardi P, Saleem HOB, Bärnighausen T, Bacha U, Badawi A, Banerjee A, Barac A, Barboza MA, Barker-Collo SL, Barrero LH, Basu S, Baune BT, Baye K, Bayou YT, Bazargan-Hejazi S, Bedi N, Beghi E, Béjot Y, Bello AK, Bennett DA, Bensenor IM, Berhane A, Bernabé E, Bernal OA, Beyene AS, Beyene TJ, Bhutta ZA, Biadgilign S, Bikbov B, Birlik SM, Birungi C, Biryukov S, Bisanzio D, Bizuayehu HM, Bose D, Brainin M, Brauer M, Brazinova A, Breitborde NJK, Brenner H, Butt ZA, Cárdenas R, Cahuana-Hurtado L, Campos-Nonato IR, Car J, Carrero JJ, Casey D, Caso V, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Rivas JC, Catalá-López F, Cecilio P, Cercy K, Charlson FJ, Chen AZ, Chew A, Chibalabala M, Chibueze CE, Chisumpa VH, Chitheer AA, Chowdhury R, Christensen H, Christopher DJ, Ciobanu LG, Cirillo M, Coggeshall MS, Cooper LT, Cortinovis M, Crump JA, Dalal K, Danawi H, Dandona L, Dandona R, Dargan PI, das Neves J, Davey G, Davitoiu DV, Davletov K, De Leo D, Del Gobbo LC, Del Pozo-Cruz B, Dellavalle RP, Deribe K, Deribew A, Des Jarlais DC, Dey S, Dharmaratne SD, Dicker D, Ding EL, Dokova K, Dorsey ER, Doyle KE, Dubey M, Ehrenkranz R, Ellingsen CL, Elyazar I, Enayati A, Ermakov SP, Eshrati B, Esteghamati A, Estep K, Fürst T, Faghmous IDA, Fanuel FBB, Faraon EJA, Farid TA, Farinha CSES, Faro A, Farvid MS, Farzadfar F, Feigin VL, Feigl AB, Fereshtehnejad SM, Fernandes JG, Fernandes JC, Feyissa TR, Fischer F, Fitzmaurice C, Fleming TD, Foigt N, Foreman KJ, Forouzanfar MH, Franklin RC, Frostad J, G/Hiwot TT, Gakidou E, Gambashidze K, Gamkrelidze A, Gao W, Garcia-Basteiro AL, Gebre T, Gebremedhin AT, Gebremichael MW, Gebru AA, Gelaye AA, Geleijnse JM, Genova-Maleras R, Gibney KB, Giref AZ, Gishu MD, Giussani G, Godwin WW, Gold A, Goldberg EM, Gona PN, Goodridge A, Gopalani SV, Goto A, Graetz N, Greaves F, Griswold M, Guban PI, Gugnani HC, Gupta PC, Gupta R, Gupta R, Gupta T, Gupta V, Habtewold TD, Hafezi-Nejad N, Haile D, Hailu AD, Hailu GB, Hakuzimana A, Hamadeh RR, Hambisa MT, Hamidi S, Hammami M, Hankey GJ, Hao Y, Harb HL, Hareri HA, Haro JM, Hassanvand MS, Havmoeller R, Hay RJ, Hay SI, Hendrie D, Heredia-Pi IB, Hoek HW, Horino M, Horita N, Hosgood HD, Htet AS, Hu G, Huang H, Huang JJ, Huntley BM, Huynh C, Iburg KM, Ileanu BV, Innos K, Irenso AA, Jahanmehr N, Jakovljevic MB, James P, James SL, Javanbakht M, Jayaraman SP, Jayatilleke AU, Jeemon P, Jha V, John D, Johnson C, Johnson SC, Jonas JB, Juel K, Kabir Z, Kalkonde Y, Kamal R, Kan H, Karch A, Karema CK, Karimi SM, Kasaeian A, Kassebaum NJ, Kastor A, Katikireddi SV, Kazanjan K, Keiyoro PN, Kemmer L, Kemp AH, Kengne AP, Kerbo AA, Kereselidze M, Kesavachandran CN, Khader YS, Khalil I, Khan AR, Khan EA, Khan G, Khang YH, Khoja ATA, Khonelidze I, Khubchandani J, Kibret GD, Kim D, Kim P, Kim YJ, Kimokoti RW, Kinfu Y, Kissoon N, Kivipelto M, Kokubo Y, Kolk A, Kolte D, Kopec JA, Kosen S, Koul PA, Koyanagi A, Kravchenko M, Krishnaswami S, Krohn KJ, Defo BK, Bicer BK, Kuipers EJ, Kulkarni VS, Kumar GA, Kumsa FA, Kutz M, Kyu HH, Lager ACJ, Lal A, Lal DK, Lalloo R, Lallukka T, Lan Q, Langan SM, Lansingh VC, Larson HJ, Larsson A, Laryea DO, Latif AA, Lawrynowicz AEB, Leasher JL, Leigh J, Leinsalu M, Leshargie CT, Leung J, Leung R, Levi M, Liang X, Lim SS, Lind M, Linn S, Lipshultz SE, Liu P, Liu Y, Lo LT, Logroscino G, Lopez AD, Lorch SA, Lotufo PA, Lozano R, Lunevicius R, Lyons RA, Macarayan ERK, Mackay MT, El Razek HMA, El Razek MMA, Mahdavi M, Majeed A, Malekzadeh R, Malta DC, Mantovani LG, Manyazewal T, Mapoma CC, Marcenes W, Marks GB, Marquez N, Martinez-Raga J, Marzan MB, Massano J, Mathur MR, Maulik PK, Mazidi M, McAlinden C, McGrath JJ, McNellan C, Meaney PA, Mehari A, Mehndiratta MM, Meier T, Mekonnen AB, Meles KG, Memish ZA, Mengesha MM, Mengiste DT, Mengistie MA, Menota BG, Mensah GA, Mereta ST, Meretoja A, Meretoja TJ, Mezgebe HB, Micha R, Millear A, Mills EJ, Minnig S, Mirarefin M, Mirrakhimov EM, Mock CN, Mohammad KA, Mohammed S, Mohanty SK, Mokdad AH, Mola GLD, Molokhia M, Monasta L, Montico M, Moradi-Lakeh M, Moraga P, Morawska L, Mori R, Moses M, Mueller UO, Murthy S, Musa KI, Nachega JB, Nagata C, Nagel G, Naghavi M, Naheed A, Naldi L, Nangia V, Nascimento BR, Negoi I, Neupane SP, Newton CR, Ng M, Ngalesoni FN, Ngunjiri JW, Nguyen G, Ningrum DNA, Nolte S, Nomura M, Norheim OF, Norrving B, Noubiap JJN, Obermeyer CM, Ogbo FA, Oh IH, Okoro A, Oladimeji O, Olagunju AT, Olivares PR, Olsen HE, Olusanya BO, Olusanya JO, Opio JN, Oren E, Ortiz A, Osborne RH, Osman M, Owolabi MO, Pa M, Pain AW, Pakhale S, Castillo EP, Pana A, Papachristou C, Parsaeian M, Patel T, Patton GC, Paudel D, Paul VK, Pearce N, Pereira DM, Perez-Padilla R, Perez-Ruiz F, Perico N, Pesudovs K, Petzold M, Phillips MR, Pigott DM, Pillay JD, Pinho C, Polinder S, Pond CD, Prakash V, Purwar M, Qorbani M, Quistberg DA, Radfar A, Rafay A, Rahimi K, Rahimi-Movaghar V, Rahman M, Rahman MHU, Rai RK, Ram U, Rana SM, Rankin Z, Rao PV, Rao PC, Rawaf S, Rego MAS, Reitsma M, Remuzzi G, Renzaho AMNN, Resnikoff S, Rezaei S, Rezai MS, Ribeiro AL, Roba HS, Rokni MB, Ronfani L, Roshandel G, Roth GA, Rothenbacher D, Roy NK, Sachdev PS, Sackey BB, Saeedi MY, Safiri S, Sagar R, Sahraian MA, Saleh MM, Salomon JA, Samy AM, Sanabria JR, Sanchez-Niño MD, Sandar L, Santos IS, Santos JV, Milicevic MMS, Sarmiento-Suarez R, Sartorius B, Satpathy M, Savic M, Sawhney M, Saylan MI, Schöttker B, Schutte AE, Schwebel DC, Seedat S, Seid AM, Seifu CN, Sepanlou SG, Serdar B, Servan-Mori EE, Setegn T, Shackelford KA, Shaheen A, Shahraz S, Shaikh MA, Shakh-Nazarova M, Shamsipour M, Islam SMS, Sharma J, Sharma R, She J, Sheikhbahaei S, Shen J, Shi P, Shigematsu M, Shin MJ, Shiri R, Shoman H, Shrime MG, Sibamo ELS, Sigfusdottir ID, Silva DAS, Silveira DGA, Sindi S, Singh A, Singh JA, Singh OP, Singh PK, Singh V, Sinke AH, Sinshaw AE, Skirbekk V, Sliwa K, Smith A, Sobngwi E, Soneji S, Soriano JB, Sousa TCM, Sposato LA, Sreeramareddy CT, Stathopoulou V, Steel N, Steiner C, Steinke S, Stokes MA, Stranges S, Strong M, Stroumpoulis K, Sturua L, Sufiyan MB, Suliankatchi RA, Sun J, Sur P, Swaminathan S, Sykes BL, Tabarés-Seisdedos R, Tabb KM, Taffere GR, Talongwa RT, Tarajia M, Tavakkoli M, Taveira N, Teeple S, Tegegne TK, Tehrani-Banihashemi A, Tekelab T, Tekle DY, Shifa GT, Terkawi AS, Tesema AG, Thakur JS, Thomson AJ, Tillmann T, Tiruye TY, Tobe-Gai R, Tonelli M, Topor-Madry R, Tortajada M, Troeger C, Truelsen T, Tura AK, Uchendu US, Ukwaja KN, Undurraga EA, Uneke CJ, Uthman OA, van Boven JFM, Van Dingenen R, Varughese S, Vasankari T, Venketasubramanian N, Violante FS, Vladimirov SK, Vlassov VV, Vollset SE, Vos T, Wagner JA, Wakayo T, Waller SG, Walson JL, Wang H, Wang YP, Watkins DA, Weiderpass E, Weintraub RG, Wen CP, Werdecker A, Wesana J, Westerman R, Whiteford HA, Wilkinson JD, Wiysonge CS, Woldeyes BG, Wolfe CDA, Won S, Workicho A, Workie SB, Wubshet M, Xavier D, Xu G, Yadav AK, Yaghoubi M, Yakob B, Yan LL, Yano Y, Yaseri M, Yimam HH, Yip P, Yonemoto N, Yoon SJ, Younis MZ, Yu C, Zaidi Z, El Sayed Zaki M, Zambrana-Torrelio C, Zapata T, Zenebe ZM, Zodpey S, Zoeckler L, Zuhlke LJ, Murray CJL.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

National levels of personal health-care access and quality can be approximated by measuring mortality rates from causes that should not be fatal in the presence of effective medical care (ie, amenable mortality). Previous analyses of mortality amenable to health care only focused on high-income countries and faced several methodological challenges. In the present analysis, we use the highly standardised cause of death and risk factor estimates generated through the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) to improve and expand the quantification of personal health-care access and quality for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015.

METHODS:

We mapped the most widely used list of causes amenable to personal health care developed by Nolte and McKee to 32 GBD causes. We accounted for variations in cause of death certification and misclassifications through the extensive data standardisation processes and redistribution algorithms developed for GBD. To isolate the effects of personal health-care access and quality, we risk-standardised cause-specific mortality rates for each geography-year by removing the joint effects of local environmental and behavioural risks, and adding back the global levels of risk exposure as estimated for GBD 2015. We employed principal component analysis to create a single, interpretable summary measure-the Healthcare Quality and Access (HAQ) Index-on a scale of 0 to 100. The HAQ Index showed strong convergence validity as compared with other health-system indicators, including health expenditure per capita (r=0·88), an index of 11 universal health coverage interventions (r=0·83), and human resources for health per 1000 (r=0·77). We used free disposal hull analysis with bootstrapping to produce a frontier based on the relationship between the HAQ Index and the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a measure of overall development consisting of income per capita, average years of education, and total fertility rates. This frontier allowed us to better quantify the maximum levels of personal health-care access and quality achieved across the development spectrum, and pinpoint geographies where gaps between observed and potential levels have narrowed or widened over time.

FINDINGS:

Between 1990 and 2015, nearly all countries and territories saw their HAQ Index values improve; nonetheless, the difference between the highest and lowest observed HAQ Index was larger in 2015 than in 1990, ranging from 28·6 to 94·6. Of 195 geographies, 167 had statistically significant increases in HAQ Index levels since 1990, with South Korea, Turkey, Peru, China, and the Maldives recording among the largest gains by 2015. Performance on the HAQ Index and individual causes showed distinct patterns by region and level of development, yet substantial heterogeneities emerged for several causes, including cancers in highest-SDI countries; chronic kidney disease, diabetes, diarrhoeal diseases, and lower respiratory infections among middle-SDI countries; and measles and tetanus among lowest-SDI countries. While the global HAQ Index average rose from 40·7 (95% uncertainty interval, 39·0-42·8) in 1990 to 53·7 (52·2-55·4) in 2015, far less progress occurred in narrowing the gap between observed HAQ Index values and maximum levels achieved; at the global level, the difference between the observed and frontier HAQ Index only decreased from 21·2 in 1990 to 20·1 in 2015. If every country and territory had achieved the highest observed HAQ Index by their corresponding level of SDI, the global average would have been 73·8 in 2015. Several countries, particularly in eastern and western sub-Saharan Africa, reached HAQ Index values similar to or beyond their development levels, whereas others, namely in southern sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and south Asia, lagged behind what geographies of similar development attained between 1990 and 2015.

INTERPRETATION:

This novel extension of the GBD Study shows the untapped potential for personal health-care access and quality improvement across the development spectrum. Amid substantive advances in personal health care at the national level, heterogeneous patterns for individual causes in given countries or territories suggest that few places have consistently achieved optimal health-care access and quality across health-system functions and therapeutic areas. This is especially evident in middle-SDI countries, many of which have recently undergone or are currently experiencing epidemiological transitions. The HAQ Index, if paired with other measures of health-system characteristics such as intervention coverage, could provide a robust avenue for tracking progress on universal health coverage and identifying local priorities for strengthening personal health-care quality and access throughout the world.

FUNDING:

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

PMID:
28528753
PMCID:
PMC5528124
DOI:
10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30818-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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