1. JAMA. 2017 Jun 6;317(21):2177-2186. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.4451.

Effect of Home Noninvasive Ventilation With Oxygen Therapy vs Oxygen Therapy
Alone on Hospital Readmission or Death After an Acute COPD Exacerbation: A
Randomized Clinical Trial.

Murphy PB(1), Rehal S(2), Arbane G(3), Bourke S(4), Calverley PMA(5), Crook
AM(2), Dowson L(6), Duffy N(7), Gibson GJ(8), Hughes PD(9), Hurst JR(10), Lewis
KE(11), Mukherjee R(12), Nickol A(13), Oscroft N(14), Patout M(3), Pepperell
J(15), Smith I(14), Stradling JR(13), Wedzicha JA(16), Polkey MI(16), Elliott
MW(17), Hart N(1).

Author information: 
(1)Lane Fox Unit, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London,
England2Asthma, Allergy, and Lung Biology, King's College London, London,
(2)MRC Clinical Trials Unit at University College London, Institute of Clinical
Trials and Methodology, London, England.
(3)Lane Fox Unit, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, England.
(4)Respiratory Medicine, Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle, 
England5Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle, England.
(5)School of Aging and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool,
(6)Respiratory Medicine, Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust, Wolverhampton, England.
(7)Respiratory Medicine, Aintree University Hospital, Liverpool, England.
(8)Respiratory Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle, England.
(9)Respiratory Medicine, Plymouth Hospital NHS Trust, Plymouth, England.
(10)Respiratory Medicine, University College London, Royal Free Campus, London,
(11)Respiratory Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, England.
(12)Respiratory Medicine, Heart of England NHS Trust, Birmingham, England.
(13)Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford University and NHS Foundation 
Trust, Oxford, England.
(14)Respiratory Support and Centre, Papworth Hospital, Cambridge, England.
(15)Respiratory Medicine, Taunton and Somerset NHS Trust, Taunton, England.
(16)NIHR Respiratory Biomedical Research Unit, Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS
Foundation Trust and Imperial College, London, England.
(17)Department of Respiratory Medicine, Leeds University Hospital, Leeds,

Comment in
    JAMA. 2017 Jun 6;317(21):2167-2169.
    Evid Based Nurs. 2018 Jan;21(1):12.
    Crit Care. 2017 Oct 26;21(1):266.

Importance: Outcomes after exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
(COPD) requiring acute noninvasive ventilation (NIV) are poor and there are few
treatments to prevent hospital readmission and death.
Objective: To investigate the effect of home NIV plus oxygen on time to
readmission or death in patients with persistent hypercapnia after an acute COPD 
Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized clinical trial of patients with
persistent hypercapnia (Paco2 >53 mm Hg) 2 weeks to 4 weeks after resolution of
respiratory acidemia, who were recruited from 13 UK centers between 2010 and
2015. Exclusion criteria included obesity (body mass index [BMI] >35),
obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, or other causes of respiratory failure. Of 2021
patients screened, 124 were eligible.
Interventions: There were 59 patients randomized to home oxygen alone (median
oxygen flow rate, 1.0 L/min [interquartile range {IQR}, 0.5-2.0 L/min]) and 57
patients to home oxygen plus home NIV (median oxygen flow rate, 1.0 L/min [IQR,
0.5-1.5 L/min]). The median home ventilator settings were an inspiratory positive
airway pressure of 24 (IQR, 22-26) cm H2O, an expiratory positive airway pressure
of 4 (IQR, 4-5) cm H2O, and a backup rate of 14 (IQR, 14-16) breaths/minute.
Main Outcomes and Measures: Time to readmission or death within 12 months
adjusted for the number of previous COPD admissions, previous use of long-term
oxygen, age, and BMI.
Results: A total of 116 patients (mean [SD] age of 67 [10] years, 53% female,
mean BMI of 21.6 [IQR, 18.2-26.1], mean [SD] forced expiratory volume in the
first second of expiration of 0.6 L [0.2 L], and mean [SD] Paco2 while breathing 
room air of 59 [7] mm Hg) were randomized. Sixty-four patients (28 in home oxygen
alone and 36 in home oxygen plus home NIV) completed the 12-month study period.
The median time to readmission or death was 4.3 months (IQR, 1.3-13.8 months) in 
the home oxygen plus home NIV group vs 1.4 months (IQR, 0.5-3.9 months) in the
home oxygen alone group, adjusted hazard ratio of 0.49 (95% CI, 0.31-0.77;
Pā€‰=ā€‰.002). The 12-month risk of readmission or death was 63.4% in the home oxygen
plus home NIV group vs 80.4% in the home oxygen alone group, absolute risk
reduction of 17.0% (95% CI, 0.1%-34.0%). At 12 months, 16 patients had died in
the home oxygen plus home NIV group vs 19 in the home oxygen alone group.
Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with persistent hypercapnia following
an acute exacerbation of COPD, adding home noninvasive ventilation to home oxygen
therapy prolonged the time to readmission or death within 12 months.
Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00990132.

DOI: 10.1001/jama.2017.4451 
PMCID: PMC5710342
PMID: 28528348  [Indexed for MEDLINE]