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J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017 Jun;76(6):1027-1042. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2016.11.012.

Injectable and topical neurotoxins in dermatology: Indications, adverse events, and controversies.

Author information

1
Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan.
2
Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco School of Medicine, San Francisco, California.
3
Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, Michigan. Electronic address: dozog1@hfhs.org.

Abstract

The use of neuromodulators for therapeutic and cosmetic indications has proven to be remarkably safe. While aesthetic and functional adverse events are uncommon, each anatomic region has its own set of risks of which the physician and patient must be aware before treatment. The therapeutic usages of botulinum toxins now include multiple specialties and multiple indications. New aesthetic indications have also developed, and there has been an increased utilization of combination therapies to combat the effects of global aging. In the second article in this continuing medical education series, we review the prevention and treatment of adverse events, therapeutic and novel aesthetic indications, controversies, and a brief overview of combination therapies.

KEYWORDS:

abobotulinum; adverse events; botulinum toxin; controversies; cosmetic uses; incobotulinum; neuromodulator; neurotoxin; onabotulinum; therapeutic uses

PMID:
28522039
DOI:
10.1016/j.jaad.2016.11.012
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