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J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2017 Aug 1;102(8):2873-2880. doi: 10.1210/jc.2016-4003.

Can Non-HLA Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Help Stratify Risk in TrialNet Relatives at Risk for Type 1 Diabetes?

Author information

Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado 80045.
Health Informatics Institute, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida 33612.
Pediatric Diabetes and Endocrinology, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030.
Center for Diabetes Research, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, North Carolina 27157.
Division of Population Health and Immunity, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia.
Royal Melbourne Hospital Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3050, Australia.
Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136.
Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22903.
Diabetes Research Institute and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136.



Genome-wide association studies identified >50 type 1 diabetes (T1D) associated non-human leukocyte antigens (non-HLA) loci.


The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of non-HLA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to risk of disease progression.

Design and Setting:

The TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study follows relatives of T1D patients for development of autoantibodies (Abs) and T1D.


Using the Immunochip, we analyzed 53 diabetes-associated, non-HLA SNPs in 1016 Ab-positive, at-risk non-Hispanic white relatives.

Main Outcome Measure:

Effect of SNPs on the development of multiple Abs and T1D.


Cox proportional analyses included all substantial non-HLA SNPs, HLA genotypes, relationship to proband, sex, age at initial screening, initial Ab type, and number. Factors involved in progression from single to multiple Abs included age at screening, relationship to proband, HLA genotypes, and rs3087243 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4). Significant factors for diabetes progression included age at screening, Ab number, HLA genotypes, rs6476839 [GLIS family zinc finger 3 (GLIS3)], and rs3184504 [SH2B adaptor protein 3 (SH2B3)]. When glucose area under the curve (AUC) was included, factors involved in disease progression included glucose AUC, age at screening, Ab number, relationship to proband, HLA genotypes, rs6476839 (GLIS3), and rs7221109 (CCR7). In stratified analyses by age, glucose AUC, age at screening, sibling, HLA genotypes, rs6476839 (GLIS3), and rs4900384 (C14orf64) were significantly associated with progression to diabetes in participants <12 years old, whereas glucose AUC, sibling, rs3184504 (SH2B3), and rs4900384 (C14orf64) were significant in those ≥12.


In conclusion, we identified five non-HLA SNPs associated with increased risk of progression from Ab positivity to disease that may improve risk stratification for prevention trials.

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