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Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2017 Jun;18(2):153-165. doi: 10.1007/s11154-017-9424-1.

The vitamin D deficiency pandemic: Approaches for diagnosis, treatment and prevention.

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Endocrinology, Nutrition and Diabetes, Department of Medicine, Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA, 02118, USA.


Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency is a global health issue that afflicts more than one billion children and adults worldwide. The consequences of vitamin D deficiency cannot be under estimated. There has been an association of vitamin D deficiency with a myriad of acute and chronic illnesses including preeclampsia, childhood dental caries, periodontitis, autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases, cardiovascular disease, deadly cancers, type 2 diabetes and neurological disorders. This review is to put into perspective the controversy surrounding the definition for vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency as well as providing guidance for how to treat and prevent vitamin D deficiency.


25-hydroxyvitamin D; Rickets; Sunlight; Vitamin D deficiency; Vitamin D insufficiency; Vitamin D toxicity; Vitamin D2; Vitamin D3

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