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J Virol. 2017 Jul 12;91(15). pii: e00357-17. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00357-17. Print 2017 Aug 1.

Cell Cycle-Dependent Expression of Adeno-Associated Virus 2 (AAV2) Rep in Coinfections with Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Gives Rise to a Mosaic of Cells Replicating either AAV2 or HSV-1.

Author information

1
Institute of Virology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
2
Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
3
Institute of Molecular Life Sciences, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
4
Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
5
Institute for Experimental Hematology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.
6
Institute of Virology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland cornel.fraefel@access.uzh.ch.

Abstract

Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) depends on the simultaneous presence of a helper virus such as herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) for productive replication. At the same time, AAV2 efficiently blocks the replication of HSV-1, which would eventually limit its own replication by diminishing the helper virus reservoir. This discrepancy begs the question of how AAV2 and HSV-1 can coexist in a cell population. Here we show that in coinfected cultures, AAV2 DNA replication takes place almost exclusively in S/G2-phase cells, while HSV-1 DNA replication is restricted to G1 phase. Live microscopy revealed that not only wild-type AAV2 (wtAAV2) replication but also reporter gene expression from both single-stranded and double-stranded (self-complementary) recombinant AAV2 vectors preferentially occurs in S/G2-phase cells, suggesting that the preference for S/G2 phase is independent of the nature of the viral genome. Interestingly, however, a substantial proportion of S/G2-phase cells transduced by the double-stranded but not the single-stranded recombinant AAV2 vectors progressed through mitosis in the absence of the helper virus. We conclude that cell cycle-dependent AAV2 rep expression facilitates cell cycle-dependent AAV2 DNA replication and inhibits HSV-1 DNA replication. This may limit competition for cellular and viral helper factors and, hence, creates a biological niche for either virus to replicate.IMPORTANCE Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) differs from most other viruses, as it requires not only a host cell for replication but also a helper virus such as an adenovirus or a herpesvirus. This situation inevitably leads to competition for cellular resources. AAV2 has been shown to efficiently inhibit the replication of helper viruses. Here we present a new facet of the interaction between AAV2 and one of its helper viruses, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). We observed that AAV2 rep gene expression is cell cycle dependent and gives rise to distinct time-controlled windows for HSV-1 replication. High Rep protein levels in S/G2 phase support AAV2 replication and inhibit HSV-1 replication. Conversely, low Rep protein levels in G1 phase permit HSV-1 replication but are insufficient for AAV2 replication. This allows both viruses to productively replicate in distinct sets of dividing cells.

KEYWORDS:

AAV2; HSV-1; Rep protein; biological niche; cell cycle; helper virus

PMID:
28515305
PMCID:
PMC5512256
DOI:
10.1128/JVI.00357-17
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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