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J Clin Microbiol. 2017 Aug;55(8):2380-2390. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00535-17. Epub 2017 May 17.

Outbreak of NDM-1-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Dutch Hospital, with Interspecies Transfer of the Resistance Plasmid and Unexpected Occurrence in Unrelated Health Care Centers.

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Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands
Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Control, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, 's-Hertogenbosch, the Netherlands.
Laboratory for Microbiology and Infection Control, Amphia Hospital Breda, Breda, the Netherlands.
Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.
Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.


In the Netherlands, the number of cases of infection with New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM)-positive Enterobacteriaceae is low. Here, we report an outbreak of NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in a Dutch hospital with interspecies transfer of the resistance plasmid and unexpected occurrence in other unrelated health care centers (HCCs). Next-generation sequencing was performed on 250 carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates, including 42 NDM-positive isolates obtained from 29 persons at the outbreak site. Most outbreak isolates were K. pneumoniae (n = 26) and Escherichia coli (n = 11), but 5 isolates comprising three other Enterobacteriaceae species were also cultured. The 26 K. pneumoniae isolates had sequence type 873 (ST873), as did 7 unrelated K. pneumoniae isolates originating from five geographically dispersed HCCs. The 33 ST873 isolates that clustered closely together using whole-genome multilocus sequence typing (wgMLST) carried the same plasmids and had limited differences in the resistome. The 11 E. coli outbreak isolates showed great variety in STs, did not cluster using wgMLST, and showed considerable diversity in resistome and plasmid profiles. The blaNDM-1 gene-carrying plasmid present in the ST873 K. pneumoniae isolates was found in all the other Enterobacteriaceae species cultured at the outbreak location and in a single E. coli isolate from another HCC. We describe a hospital outbreak with an NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae strain from an unknown source that was also found in patients from five other Dutch HCCs in the same time frame without an epidemiological link. Interspecies transfer of the resistance plasmid was observed in other Enterobacteriaceae species isolated at the outbreak location and in another HCC.


Klebsiella; NDM; carbapenems; outbreak

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