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Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jul;106(1):16-26. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.117.153825. Epub 2017 May 17.

ω-3 and ω-6 long-chain PUFAs and their enzymatic metabolites in neovascular eye diseases.

Author information

1
Department of Ophthalmology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and.
2
Department of Ophthalmology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
3
Department of Ophthalmology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; and lois.smith@childrens.harvard.edu.

Abstract

Neovascular eye diseases, including retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, threaten the visual health of children and adults. Current treatment options, including anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy and laser retinal photocoagulation, have limitations and are associated with adverse effects; therefore, the identification of additional therapies is highly desirable. Both clinical and experimental studies show that dietary ω-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) reduce retinal and choroidal angiogenesis. The ω-3 LC-PUFA metabolites from 2 groups of enzymes, cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases, inhibit [and the ω-6 (n-6) LC-PUFA metabolites promote] inflammation and angiogenesis. However, both of the ω-3 and the ω-6 lipid products of cytochrome P450 oxidase 2C promote neovascularization in both the retina and choroid, which suggests that inhibition of this pathway might be beneficial. This review summarizes our current understanding of the roles of ω-3 and ω-6 LC-PUFAs and their enzymatic metabolites in neovascular eye diseases.

KEYWORDS:

age-related macular degeneration; diabetic retinopathy; lipid metabolism; long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid; retinopathy of prematurity

PMID:
28515072
PMCID:
PMC5486202
DOI:
10.3945/ajcn.117.153825
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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