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Environ Health. 2017 May 17;16(1):46. doi: 10.1186/s12940-017-0255-z.

Distributions and determinants of urinary biomarkers of organophosphate pesticide exposure in a prospective Spanish birth cohort study.

Author information

1
Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia, Spain. llop_sab@gva.es.
2
Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Av. Monforte de Lemos, 3-5. Pabellón 11, 28029, Madrid, Spain. llop_sab@gva.es.
3
Foundation for the Promotion of Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencia Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Avda. Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia, Spain. llop_sab@gva.es.
4
Epidemiology and Environmental Health Joint Research Unit, FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia, Spain.
5
Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Av. Monforte de Lemos, 3-5. Pabellón 11, 28029, Madrid, Spain.
6
Analytical Unit, Medical Research Institute Hospital La Fe, Av. Fernando Abril Martorell, 106- Torre A, 46026, Valencia, Spain.
7
Foundation for the Promotion of the Health and Biomedical Research in the Valencia Region, FISABIO-Public Health, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia, Spain.
8
Public Health Laboratory of Valencia, Av. Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia, Spain.
9
Analytical Chemistry Department, Universitat de València, Dr. Moliner, 50, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia, Spain.
10
Department of Medicine, Universitat Jaume I, Av. Vicent Sos Baynat, s/n, 12071, Castelló de la Plana, Spain.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) has been associated with impaired child development. Pesticide exposure determinants need to be studied in order to identify sources and pathways of pesticide exposure. The aim of this paper is to describe prenatal exposure to OPs and evaluate the associated factors in pregnant women.

METHODS:

The study population consisted of pregnant women (n = 573) who participated in the INMA birth cohort study in Valencia (Spain, 2003-2006). OP metabolites were analyzed in maternal urine at the 32nd week of gestation using a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method. The analysis included non-specific (diethyl phosphate [DEP], diethyl thiophosphate [DETP], dimethyl thiophosphate [DMTP], dimethyl dithiophosphate [DMDTP]) and specific metabolites (2-diethylamino-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol [DEAMPY], 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine [IMPY], para-nitrophenol [PNP], and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol [TCPY]). Information about the sociodemographic, environmental, and dietary characteristics was obtained by questionnaire. The association between log-transformed OPs and covariates was analyzed using multivariable interval censored regression.

RESULTS:

The detection frequencies were low, DMTP and TCPY being the most frequently detected metabolites (53.8% and 39.1%, respectively). All the OP metabolites were positively associated with maternal intake of fruits and vegetables. Other maternal characteristics related to the OPs were body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy and smoking habit during pregnancy. Women with lower BMI and those who did not smoke presented higher OP concentrations. Moreover, mothers who had a yard or garden with plants at home or who lived in an urban area were also more exposed to OPs.

CONCLUSIONS:

The OP detection frequencies and the concentrations observed in our study population were low, compared with most of the previously published studies. Given the high vulnerability of the fetus to neurotoxicant exposure, further research on the determinants of the body burden of OPs during pregnancy would be necessary. The knowledge gained from such studies would enhance the effectiveness of public health control and future recommendations in order to reduce the risk to both the health of pregnant women and the health and development of their children.

KEYWORDS:

Agriculture; Development; Diet; Fruit; Pesticides; Vegetables

PMID:
28514952
PMCID:
PMC5436449
DOI:
10.1186/s12940-017-0255-z
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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