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J Chem Theory Comput. 2017 Jun 13;13(6):2501-2510. doi: 10.1021/acs.jctc.7b00204. Epub 2017 May 26.

Gibbs Sampler-Based λ-Dynamics and Rao-Blackwell Estimator for Alchemical Free Energy Calculation.

Author information

1
Department of Computational Medicine & Bioinformatics, ‡Department of Chemistry, §Biophysics Program, University of Michigan , Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, United States.

Abstract

λ-dynamics is a generalized ensemble method for alchemical free energy calculations. In traditional λ-dynamics, the alchemical switch variable λ is treated as a continuous variable ranging from 0 to 1 and an empirical estimator is utilized to approximate the free energy. In the present article, we describe an alternative formulation of λ-dynamics that utilizes the Gibbs sampler framework, which we call Gibbs sampler-based λ-dynamics (GSLD). GSLD, like traditional λ-dynamics, can be readily extended to calculate free energy differences between multiple ligands in one simulation. We also introduce a new free energy estimator, the Rao-Blackwell estimator (RBE), for use in conjunction with GSLD. Compared with the current empirical estimator, the advantage of RBE is that RBE is an unbiased estimator and its variance is usually smaller than the current empirical estimator. We also show that the multistate Bennett acceptance ratio equation or the unbinned weighted histogram analysis method equation can be derived using the RBE. We illustrate the use and performance of this new free energy computational framework by application to a simple harmonic system as well as relevant calculations of small molecule relative free energies of solvation and binding to a protein receptor. Our findings demonstrate consistent and improved performance compared with conventional alchemical free energy methods.

PMID:
28510433
PMCID:
PMC5828534
DOI:
10.1021/acs.jctc.7b00204
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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