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Nat Commun. 2017 May 16;8:15451. doi: 10.1038/ncomms15451.

Whole genome analysis of a schistosomiasis-transmitting freshwater snail.

Adema CM1, Hillier LW2, Jones CS3, Loker ES1, Knight M4,5, Minx P2, Oliveira G6,7, Raghavan N, Shedlock A8, do Amaral LR9, Arican-Goktas HD10, Assis JG6, Baba EH6, Baron OL11, Bayne CJ12, Bickham-Wright U13, Biggar KK14, Blouin M12, Bonning BC15, Botka C16, Bridger JM10, Buckley KM17, Buddenborg SK1, Lima Caldeira R18, Carleton J19, Carvalho OS18, Castillo MG20, Chalmers IW21, Christensens M22, Clifton S2, Cosseau C23, Coustau C11, Cripps RM24, Cuesta-Astroz Y6, Cummins SF25, di Stephano L26,27, Dinguirard N13, Duval D23, Emrich S28, Feschotte C19, Feyereisen R29, FitzGerald P30, Fronick C2, Fulton L2, Galinier R23, Gava SG6, Geusz M31, Geyer KK21, Giraldo-Calderón GI28, de Souza Gomes M9, Gordy MA31, Gourbal B23, Grunau C23, Hanington PC32, Hoffmann KF21, Hughes D22, Humphries J33, Jackson DJ34, Jannotti-Passos LK6, de Jesus Jeremias W6, Jobling S35, Kamel B36, Kapusta A19, Kaur S35, Koene JM37, Kohn AB38, Lawson D22, Lawton SP39, Liang D25, Limpanont Y25, Liu S15, Lockyer AE35, Lovato TL24, Ludolf F6, Magrini V2, McManus DP40, Medina M36, Misra M1, Mitta G23, Mkoji GM41, Montague MJ42, Montelongo C20, Moroz LL38, Munoz-Torres MC43, Niazi U21, Noble LR3, Oliveira FS6, Pais FS6, Papenfuss AT26,27, Peace R44, Pena JJ1, Pila EA32, Quelais T23, Raney BJ45, Rast JP17, Rollinson D46, Rosse IC6, Rotgans B25, Routledge EJ35, Ryan KM24, Scholte LLS6, Storey KB14, Swain M21, Tennessen JA12, Tomlinson C2, Trujillo DL24, Volpi EV47, Walker AJ39, Wang T25, Wannaporn I4, Warren WC2, Wu XJ13, Yoshino TP13, Yusuf M48,49, Zhang SM1, Zhao M25, Wilson RK2.

Author information

Center for Theoretical and Evolutionary Immunology, Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque New Mexico 87131 USA.
The McDonnell Genome Institute, Washington University, Saint Louis, Missouri 63108 USA.
Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, UK.
Department of Microbiology, Immunology &Tropical Medicine and Research Center for Neglected Diseases of Poverty, School of Medicine &Health Sciences, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20037, USA.
Division of Science &Mathematics, University of the District of Columbia, 4200 Connecticut Avenue NW Washington, Washington DC 20008, USA.
René Rachou Research Center, FIOCRUZ-Minas, Belo Horizonte, MG Brazil.
Vale Institute of Technology, Belém, Brazil.
College of Charleston, Biology Department, Medical University of South Carolina College of Graduate Studies Hollings Marine Laboratory Charleston, Charleston, South Carolina 29412 USA.
Laboratory of Bioinformatics and Molecular Analysis, Institute of Genetics and Biochemistry Federal University of Uberlândia - Campus Patos de Minas (UFU), CEP 38700-128 Patos de Minas, Brasil.
Department of Life Sciences, College of Health and Life Sciences, Brunel University, London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, UK.
Institut Sophia Agrobiotech, INRA/CNRS/UNS, Sophia Antipolis, France.
Department of Integrative Biology, Oregon State University, 3029 Cordley Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 USA.
Department of Pathobiological Sciences, University of Wisconsin - School of Veterinary Medicine, 2015 Linden Dr Madison, Wisconsin 53706 USA.
Institute of Biochemisty and Department of Biology, Carleton University, Ottawa Ontario, Canada.
Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 USA.
Department of Information Technology, Harvard Medical School, 107 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 USA.
Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Department of Immunology, University of Toronto, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Rm. S126, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada.
Laboratorio de Helmintologia e Malacologia Médica, FIOCRUZ-Minas, René Rachou Research Center, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
Department of Human Genetics. University of Utah. 15 North 2030 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA.
Biology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003, USA.
Animal and Microbial Sciences Research Theme, IBERS, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth SY23 3FG, UK.
EMBL-EBI, Wellcome Genome Campus, CB10 1, UK.
Univ. Perpignan Via Domitia, IHPE UMR 5244, CNRS, IFREMER, Univ. Montpellier, F-66860 Perpignan, France.
Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, USA.
Faculty of Science, Health and Education, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, Queensland 4558, Australia.
The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute for Medical Research 1G Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052 Australia.
Bioinformatics and Cancer Genomics lab Lorenzo and Pamela Galli, Melanoma Research Fellow Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre St Andrews Place, East Melbourne, Victoria 3002, Australia.
Genomics and Bioinformatics Core Facility, 19 Galvin Life Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 USA.
University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Science, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.
Genome Analysis Unit, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
Biological Sciences, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio 43403 USA.
Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Alberta, 3-57F South Academic Building, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1C9, Canada.
Department of Biology, Lawrence University, Appleton Wisconsin 54911 USA.
Courant Research Centre Geobiology, Georg-August University of Göttingen, Goldschmidtstraße 3, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.
Institute of Environment, Health &Societies, Environment and Health Theme, Brunel University London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, UK.
Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 USA.
Faculteit der Aard- en Levenswetenschappen, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1085-1087 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
The Whitney Laboratory for Marine Bioscience, University of Florida, 9505 Ocean Shore Blvd, St Augustine, Florida 32080, USA.
Molecular Parasitology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences Pharmacy and Chemistry, Kingston University, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey KT1 2EE. UK.
Molecular Parasitology Laboratory, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia.
Kenya Medical Research Institute. P.O. Box 54840, 00200. Nairobi, Kenya.
Department of Neuroscience, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 USA.
Berkeley Bioinformatics Open-Source Projects, Environmental Genomics and Systems Biology Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road MS 977, Berkeley, California, 94720, USA.
Department of Systems and Computer Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa Ontario, Canada.
Genomics Institute, UC Santa Cruz, UC Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA.
Parasites and Vectors Division, London Centre for Neglected Tropical Disease Research, Wolfson Wellcome Biomedical Laboratories, Department of Life Sciences, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK.
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Westminster, 115 New Cavendish Street, London W1W 6UW, UK.
London Centre for Nanotechnology,University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK.
Research Complex at Harwell, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0FA, UK.


Biomphalaria snails are instrumental in transmission of the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni. With the World Health Organization's goal to eliminate schistosomiasis as a global health problem by 2025, there is now renewed emphasis on snail control. Here, we characterize the genome of Biomphalaria glabrata, a lophotrochozoan protostome, and provide timely and important information on snail biology. We describe aspects of phero-perception, stress responses, immune function and regulation of gene expression that support the persistence of B. glabrata in the field and may define this species as a suitable snail host for S. mansoni. We identify several potential targets for developing novel control measures aimed at reducing snail-mediated transmission of schistosomiasis.

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