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J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2017 Jun;31(2):126-138. doi: 10.1080/15360288.2017.1304494. Epub 2017 May 16.

Complications of Psychotropic and Pain Medications in an Ultrarapid Metabolizer Patient at the Upper 1% of Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) Function Quantified by Combinatorial CYP450 Genotyping.


A 44-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a history of empirical treatment with 20 pain and psychotropic medications, as well as dual comorbidity of intractable pain and depression. A multiple gain-of-function profile in the CYP450 family of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) drug metabolism isoenzymes was discovered. The patient was a homozygote of suprafunctional alleles for both CYP2D6 (*35/*35) and CYP2C19 (*17/*17) genes and functional alleles for CYP2C9 (*1/*1), which account for aggregate drug metabolism function at the upper 1% of the population. The patient improved clinically with discontinuation of psychotropics and pain medications that were substrates of CYP2D6 and/or CYP2C19, suggesting that much of her symptomatology was drug induced. Combinatorial genotyping of CYP450 genes is diagnostically useful in individuals with histories of multiple side effects or drug resistance, which could be avoided by genetically informed therapeutics in behavioral health.


antidepressants; clinical decision support; combinatorial genotyping; opioids; pain management; ultrarapid metabolizer

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