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Child Neurol Open. 2017 Jan 12;4:2329048X16688125. doi: 10.1177/2329048X16688125. eCollection 2017 Jan-Dec.

Maternal Race-Ethnicity, Immigrant Status, Country of Birth, and the Odds of a Child With Autism.

Author information

1
British Columbia Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
2
Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
3
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Abstract

The risk of autism spectrum disorder varies by maternal race-ethnicity, immigration status, and birth region. In this retrospective cohort study, Western Australian state registries and a study population of 134 204 mothers enabled us to examine the odds of autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability in children born from 1994 to 2005 by the aforementioned characteristics. We adjusted for maternal age, parity, socioeconomic status, and birth year. Indigenous women were 50% less likely to have a child with autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability than Caucasian, nonimmigrant women. Overall, immigrant women were 40% less likely to have a child with autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability than nonimmigrant women. However, Black women from East Africa had more than 3.5 times the odds of autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability in their children than Caucasian nonimmigrant women. Research is implicated on risk and protective factors for autism spectrum disorder with intellectual disability in the children of immigrant women.

KEYWORDS:

autism; developmental disability; epidemiology; immigrant; intellectual disability; race

Conflict of interest statement

Declaration of Conflicting Interests: The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

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