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Clin Nutr Res. 2017 Apr;6(2):122-129. doi: 10.7762/cnr.2017.6.2.122. Epub 2017 Apr 24.

Carbohydrate Composition Associated with the 2-Year Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults.

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Department of Preventive Medicine, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 16499, Korea.
Division of Epidemiology and Health Index, Center for Genome Science, Korea National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cheongwon 28159, Korea.
Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 13620, Korea.
Department of Foods and Nutrition, Kookmin University College of Science and Technology, Seoul 02707, Korea.


The aim of this study was to investigate the association between macronutrient composition and metabolic syndrome (MetS) incidence in Korean adults. Data were obtained from a cohort of 10,030 members aged 40 to 69 years who were enrolled from the 2 cities (Ansung and Ansan) between 2001 and 2002 to participate in the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study. Of these members, 5,565 participants, who were free of MetS and reported no diagnosis of cardiovascular disease at baseline, were included in this study. MetS was defined using the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III and Asia-Pacific criteria for waist circumference. MetS incidence rate were identified during a 2-year follow-up period. Baseline dietary information was obtained using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between the quartiles of percentages of total calorie from macronutrients consumed and MetS incidence. In analyses, baseline information, including age, sex, body mass index, income status, educational status, smoking status, alcohol drinking status, and physical activity level was considered as confounding variables. Participants with the second quartile of the percentages of carbohydrate calorie (67%-70%) had a 23% reduced odds ratio (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.97) for MetS incidence compared with those with the fourth quartile after adjusting for confounding variables. The findings suggest that middle aged or elderly Korean adults who consume approximately 67%-70% of calorie from carbohydrate have a reduced risk of MetS.


Carbohydrate; Korean adults; Macronutrient composition; Metabolic syndrome; Prospective cohort study

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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