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Diagnostics (Basel). 2017 May 12;7(2). pii: E27. doi: 10.3390/diagnostics7020027.

Comparison of Direct Sequencing, Real-Time PCR-High Resolution Melt (PCR-HRM) and PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) Analysis for Genotyping of Common Thiopurine Intolerant Variant Alleles NUDT15 c.415C>T and TPMT c.719A>G (TPMT*3C).

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Pathology, Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, Chai Wan, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. fwy669@ha.org.hk.
2
Department of Clinical Pathology, Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, Chai Wan, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. hcc604@ha.org.hk.
3
Department of Clinical Pathology, Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital, Chai Wan, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. poonwt@ha.org.hk.

Abstract

Thiopurine intolerance and treatment-related toxicity, such as fatal myelosuppression, is related to non-function genetic variants encoding thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) and Nudix hydrolase 15 (NUDT15). Genetic testing of the common variants NUDT15:NM_018283.2:c.415C>T (Arg139Cys, dbSNP rs116855232 T allele) and TPMT: NM_000367.4:c.719A>G (TPMT*3C, dbSNP rs1142345 G allele) in East Asians including Chinese can potentially prevent treatment-related complications. Two complementary genotyping approaches, real-time PCR-high resolution melt (PCR-HRM) and PCR-restriction fragment length morphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis were evaluated using conventional PCR and Sanger sequencing genotyping as the gold standard. Sixty patient samples were tested, revealing seven patients (11.7%) heterozygous for NUDT15 c.415C>T, one patient homozygous for the variant and one patient heterozygous for the TPMT*3C non-function allele. No patient was found to harbor both variants. In total, nine out of 60 (15%) patients tested had genotypic evidence of thiopurine intolerance, which may require dosage adjustment or alternative medication should they be started on azathioprine, mercaptopurine or thioguanine. The two newly developed assays were more efficient and showed complete concordance (60/60, 100%) compared to the Sanger sequencing results. Accurate and cost-effective genotyping assays by real-time PCR-HRM and PCR-RFLP for NUDT15 c.415C>T and TPMT*3C were successfully developed. Further studies may establish their roles in genotype-informed clinical decision-making in the prevention of morbidity and mortality due to thiopurine intolerance.

KEYWORDS:

Asian; NUDT15; Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP); TPMT*3C; genotyping; high resolution melt (HRM); pharmacogenetic; rs1142345; rs116855232; sequencing; thiopurine intolerance

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