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Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2017 Sep 5;69(7):504-516. doi: 10.1016/j.etp.2017.04.012. Epub 2017 May 8.

Ameliorative effects of Achillea millefolium inflorescences alcoholic extract against nicotine-induced reproductive failure in rat.

Author information

1
Department of Basic Sciences. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Urmia University, Urmia, Iran. Electronic address: Mahsa.Hallaj14@gmail.com.
2
Department of Basic Sciences. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.
3
Food and Beverages Safety Research Center. Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran; Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology. Faculty of Pharmacy. Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Nicotine (Nic) is a major risk factor in the development of functional disorders of male reproductive system. Achillea millefolium; is highly regarded for medicinal activities, due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study was carried out to evaluate whether Achillea millefolium (Achm) inflorescences alcoholic extract could serve as a protective agent in male reproductive male failures during Nic exposure in a rat model.

METHODS:

Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats were categorized into the five groups. Tests 1 and 3 groups were received Nic at dose levels of 0.2 and 0.4mg/kg BW/day, respectively by IP injection. Tests 2 and 4 groups were received Nic at the same doses along with Achm at dose level of 120mg/kg BW/day. The study period took forty-eight days for all experimental groups.

RESULTS:

Nic groups showed significant decreases in tubule differentiation index (TDI), sperm count, motility, stereological parameters and an increase in dead and abnormal sperms. Moreover, the reduction in total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, serum levels of FSH, LH and testosterone, along with increased serum concentration of LDH were observed in the Nic groups. Total nitrite and malondealdehyde levels increased and total thiol molecules (TTM) levels decreased in testicular tissue in the Nic groups. Notably, Achm co-administration caused a contemporary recovery in above-mentioned parameters.

CONCLUSION:

Nic exerts major toxicity in testicular tissue and causes damages in several ways including, oxidative stress, whilst Achm imposes protective effect against Nic-induced reproductive failure, which may attribute to its antioxidant capacity.

KEYWORDS:

Achillea millefolium; Biochemical parameters; Histomorphometry; Nicotine; Rat; Testes

PMID:
28495475
DOI:
10.1016/j.etp.2017.04.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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