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Med Dosim. 2017 Summer;42(2):150-155. doi: 10.1016/j.meddos.2017.03.001. Epub 2017 May 8.

Clinical applications of 3-dimensional printing in radiation therapy.

Author information

1
Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, 5820 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 2Y9, Canada. Electronic address: yizhou.zhao@dal.ca.
2
Department of Radiation Oncology, Dalhousie University, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, 5820 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 2Y9, Canada.
3
Department of Medical Physics, Dalhousie University, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, 5820 University Avenue, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 2Y9, Canada.

Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) printing is suitable for the fabrication of complex radiotherapy bolus. Although investigated from dosimetric and feasibility standpoints, there are few reports to date of its use for actual patient treatment. This study illustrates the versatile applications of 3D printing in clinical radiation oncology through a selection of patient cases, namely, to create bolus for photon and modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT), as well as applicators for surface high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Photon boluses were 3D-printed to treat a recurrent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the nasal septum and a basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the posterior pinna. For a patient with a mycosis fungoides involving the upper face, a 3D-printed MERT bolus was used. To treat an SCC of the nose, a 3D-printed applicator for surface brachytherapy was made. The structures' fit to the anatomy and the radiotherapy treatment plans were assessed. Based on the treatment planning computed tomography (CT), the size of the largest air gap at the interface of the 3D-printed structure was 3 mm for the SCC of the nasal septum, 3 mm for the BCC of the pinna, 2 mm for the mycosis fungoides of the face, and 2 mm for the SCC of the nose. Acceptable treatment plans were obtained for the SCC of the nasal septum (95% isodose to 99.8% of planning target volume [PTV]), the BCC of the pinna (95% isodose to 97.7% of PTV), and the mycosis fungoides of the face (90% isodose to 92.5% of PTV). For the latter, compared with a plan with a uniform thickness bolus, the one featuring the MERT bolus achieved relative sparing of all the organs at risk (OARs) distal to the target volume, while maintaining similar target volume coverage. The surface brachytherapy plan for the SCC of the nose had adequate coverage (95% isodose to 95.6% of clinical target volume [CTV]), but a relatively high dose to the left eye, owing to its proximity to the tumor. 3D printing can be implemented effectively in the clinical setting to create highly conformal bolus for photon and MERT, as well as applicators for surface brachytherapy.

KEYWORDS:

3D printing; Bolus; Brachytherapy applicator; Modulated electron radiotherapy; Surface brachytherapy

PMID:
28495033
DOI:
10.1016/j.meddos.2017.03.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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