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Antioxid Redox Signal. 2018 Mar 20;28(9):852-872. doi: 10.1089/ars.2017.7147. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Induced by Environmental and Psychological Stressors: A Biomarker Perspective.

Author information

1
1 Brighton & Sussex Medical School , Brighton, United Kingdom .
2
2 Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford , Oxford, United Kingdom .
3
3 Alan Turing Institute , London, United Kingdom .
4
4 Institute of Protein Biochemistry , National Research Council, Napoli, Italy .
5
5 Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria La Paz (IdiPaz), Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas Alberto Sols UAM-CSIC , Madrid, Spain .
6
6 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Autonomous University of Madrid , Madrid, Spain .
7
7 "Victor Babes" National Institute of Pathology , Bucharest, Romania .
8
8 William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London , London, United Kingdom .
9
9 Department of Surgery and Cancer, Faculty of Medicine, and MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London , London, United Kingdom .

Abstract

SIGNIFICANCE:

The environment can elicit biological responses such as oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation as a consequence of chemical, physical, or psychological changes. As population studies are essential for establishing these environment-organism interactions, biomarkers of OS or inflammation are critical in formulating mechanistic hypotheses. Recent Advances: By using examples of stress induced by various mechanisms, we focus on the biomarkers that have been used to assess OS and inflammation in these conditions. We discuss the difference between biomarkers that are the result of a chemical reaction (such as lipid peroxides or oxidized proteins that are a result of the reaction of molecules with reactive oxygen species) and those that represent the biological response to stress, such as the transcription factor NRF2 or inflammation and inflammatory cytokines.

CRITICAL ISSUES:

The high-throughput and holistic approaches to biomarker discovery used extensively in large-scale molecular epidemiological exposome are also discussed in the context of human exposure to environmental stressors.

FUTURE DIRECTIONS:

We propose to consider the role of biomarkers as signs and to distinguish between signs that are just indicators of biological processes and proxies that one can interact with and modify the disease process. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 852-872.

KEYWORDS:

NRF2; cytokines; emotions; exposome; genomics; nanomaterials; neuroendocrinology; proteomics; xenobiotics

PMID:
28494612
DOI:
10.1089/ars.2017.7147
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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