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Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2017 Sep 1;90(3):418-424. doi: 10.1002/ccd.27151. Epub 2017 Jun 1.

Transcatheter interventions in adults with congenital heart disease: Surveys from the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions to identify current patterns of care and perception on training requirements.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, California.
Department of Internal Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.
Division of Pediatric Cardiology, University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colorado.
Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Our Lady's Children Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Sidra Medical and Research Center, Doha, Qatar.
Division of Pediatric Cardiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.
Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California.
Division of Cardiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois.



Interventional catheterization is central to the care of Adults with Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD). Current standards for care provision and training in ACHD intervention are lacking. We sought to examine trends in current practice and training among interventionalists.


We analyzed the results of two separate international surveys in June 2016. One was sent to all active members from the Society of Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) who self-identified Structural Heart Disease or Congenital Heart Disease as a practice area. The second survey was conducted through the Pediatric Interventional Early Career Society (PICES) aimed at pediatric and adult congenital interventionalists in their first seven years after training. The total survey sample sizes were 1,535 and 112, respectively.


Response rates for the SCAI and PICES surveys were 15% (237/1,535) and 75% (84/112), respectively. Most respondents (74%) worked at institutions with pediatric and adult facilities in proximity (major medical centers). While 75% of SCAI respondents believed complex transcatheter procedures should be performed by ACHD-trained interventionalists or multidisciplinary teams, only 32% reported such care is being provided at the present time. Most pediatric and adult cardiologists surveyed (73%) do not believe current interventional fellowships provide adequate training for proficiency in ACHD interventions.


ACHD management remains underdeveloped in relative terms, particularly in the United States. Significant gaps in interventional standards of practice and future training needs were recognized by this study. Our survey should serve as an impetus to establish training guidelines for physicians who seek to perform ACHD interventions.


adult congenital heart disease; interventions; transcatheter

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