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J Sci Food Agric. 2017 Dec;97(15):5335-5342. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.8422. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

Phenol metabolism and preservation of fresh in-hull walnut stored in modified atmosphere packaging.

Wang J1,2, Li P1, Gong B3, Li S1, Ma H1.

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College of Life Science, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Shaanxi province, China.
Department of Bio-resource Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment, McGill University, Montreal, Québec province, Canada.
College of Landscape Architecture and Arts, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Shaanxi province, China.



The effects of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on phenol metabolism and preservation of fresh in-hull walnuts have been investigated. Fruit was packaged under MAP1 (film thickness, 30 μm), MAP2 (45 μm) and MAP3 (50 μm) and stored at -0.5 to 1.0 °C for up to 60 days.


Firmness, soluble solid concentration, total phenols, total flavonoids and total antioxidant activity of the green hull were maintained at higher levels under the MAP conditions, whereas decay incidence was lower compared to the control during storage. Green hull of fruit under MAP conditions contained lower polyphenol oxidase activity than the control and the peroxidase activity was at a similar level to the control after 18 days. Phenylalanine ammonialyase activity was enhanced by MAP conditions, with two peaks on days 18 and 36. Until day 60, the peroxide value and acid value of kernel oils under MAP conditions were lower than that of the control.


The MAP3 treatment was most effective for maintaining kernel quality. The protective role of MAP conditions on phenolic contents in green hull may contribute to the mitigation of decay and the maintenance of kernel quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.


fresh in-hull walnut; modified atmosphere packaging; phenol metabolism associated enzymes; preservation

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