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J Clin Oncol. 2017 Aug 10;35(23):2624-2630. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2016.71.4394. Epub 2017 May 9.

Non-V600 BRAF Mutations Define a Clinically Distinct Molecular Subtype of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

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Jeremy C. Jones, Lindsay A. Renfro, Ben Y. Zhang, Pashtoon M. Kasi, Jesse S. Voss, Alexis D. Leal, Joleen M. Hubbard, Benjamin R. Kipp, Robert R. McWilliams, and Axel Grothey, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN; Humaid O. Al-Shamsi, Scott Kopetz, and Robert A. Wolff, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; and Alexa B. Schrock, Andrew Rankin, James Sun, Jeffrey Ross, and Siraj M. Ali, Foundation Medicine, Cambridge, MA.


Purpose Molecular diagnostic testing has become an integral part of the evaluation of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Expanded mutational testing, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), often identifies mutations with unclear clinical or prognostic implications. One such example is BRAF mutations that occur outside of codon 600 (non-V600 BRAF mutations). Methods We conducted this multicenter, retrospective cohort study to characterize the clinical, pathologic, and survival implications of non-V600 BRAF mutations in metastatic CRC. We pooled patients in whom non-V600 BRAF mutations were identified from NGS databases at three large molecular genetics reference laboratories. Results A total of 9,643 patients with metastatic CRC underwent NGS testing. We identified 208 patients with non-V600 BRAF mutations, which occurred in 2.2% of all patients tested and accounted for 22% of all BRAF mutations identified. Cancers with non-V600 BRAF mutations, compared with cancers with V600E BRAF (V600E BRAF) mutations, were found in patients who were significantly younger (58 v 68 years, respectively), fewer female patients (46% v 65%, respectively), and patients who had fewer high-grade tumors (13% v 64%, respectively) or right-sided primary tumors (36% v 81%, respectively). Median overall survival was significantly longer in patients with non-V600 BRAF-mutant metastatic CRC compared with those with both V600E BRAF-mutant and wild-type BRAF metastatic CRC (60.7 v 11.4 v 43.0 months, respectively; P < .001). In multivariable analysis, non-V600 BRAF mutation was independently associated with improved overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.18; P < .001). Conclusion Non-V600 BRAF mutations occur in approximately 2.2% of patients with metastatic CRC and define a clinically distinct subtype of CRC with an excellent prognosis.

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