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Dev Reprod. 2017 Mar;21(1):19-33. doi: 10.12717/DR.2017.21.1.019. Epub 2017 Mar 31.

Effects of Clove Oil and Lidocaine-HCl Anesthesia on Water Parameter during Simulated Transportation in the Marine Medaka, Oryzias dancena.

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Division of Marine Bioscience, College of Ocean Science and Technology, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan 606-791, Korea.
Institute of Marine Living Modified Organisms (iMLMO), Pukyung National University, Busan 608-737, Korea.
Future Aquaculture Research Center, National Fisheries Research & Development Institute, Jeju 690-192, Korea.


Optimum concentrations of anesthetic clove oil and anesthetic lidocaine-HCl were determined for a species of adult marine medaka, Oryzias dancena, over a range of salinity conditions, and investigated in a transport simulation experiment by analyzing various water and physiological parameters. Research indicated that the higher the concentration of anesthetic at each salinity, the shorter the anesthesia time at each salinity. At each concentration, fish were anesthetized slower at water salinities over 10 ppt (P<0.05). Anesthesia time at 10 ppt was faster than any other salinity. In 10 ppt salinity, the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and respiratory frequencies of the clove-oil-administered groups decreased until 48 hours (P<0.05), whereas the NH4+ and CO2 concentrations increased until 48 hours (P<0.05). In same period, the DO, NH4+, and CO2 concentrations and respiratory frequencies all decreased as the clove oil concentration increased (P<0.05). The trends in the DO, NH4+, and CO2 concentrations and respiratory frequencies in the lidocaine-HCl-administered groups were similar to those in the clove-oil-administered groups. In conclusion, clove oil and lidocaine-HCl are effective anesthetics, improving the transportation of the marine medaka. The results from this study will contribute to safe laboratory handling of the marine medaka, which are commonly required by many research studies and experiments.


Anesthesia; Clove oil; Lidocaine-HCl; Marine medaka; Oryzias dancena; Salinity; Water parameters

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