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Neurobiol Aging. 2017 Aug;56:33-40. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2017.03.034. Epub 2017 Apr 8.

The frequency and influence of dementia risk factors in prodromal Alzheimer's disease.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Alzheimer Center Limburg, Maastricht, Netherlands. Electronic address: isabelle.bos@maastrichtuniversity.nl.
2
Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Alzheimer Center Limburg, Maastricht, Netherlands.
3
On behalf of German Dementia Competence Network; Department of Geriatric Psychiatry, Zentralinstitut für Seelische Gesundheit, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.
4
On behalf of German Dementia Competence Network; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.
5
On behalf of German Dementia Competence Network; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Medical Center (UMC), Georg-August-University, Göttingen, Germany.
6
On behalf of German Dementia Competence Network; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Bonn, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Bonn, Germany.
7
On behalf of German Dementia Competence Network; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
8
On behalf of German Dementia Competence Network; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.
9
Department of Neurology and Memory Clinic, Hospital Network Antwerp (ZNA) Middelheim and Hoge Beuken, Antwerp, Belgium; Reference Center for Biological Markers of Dementia (BIODEM), University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
10
Reference Center for Biological Markers of Dementia (BIODEM), University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.
11
Reference Center for Biological Markers of Dementia (BIODEM), University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Clinical and Lifespan Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
12
3rd Department of Neurology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Memory and Dementia Center, "G Papanicolau" General Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece.
13
Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Caring Sciences and Society (NVS), Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Geriatric Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
14
Danish Dementia Research Centre, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
15
Department of Neurology, University of Hospital Leuven, Leuven, Belgium; Laboratory for Cognitive Neurology, Department of Neurosciences, KU Leuven, Belgium.
16
Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain.
17
On behalf of the EADC-PET consortium; Geneva Neuroscience Center, University Hospital and University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; IRCCS San Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy.
18
IRCCS San Giovanni di Dio Fatebenefratelli, Brescia, Italy.
19
On behalf of the EADC-PET consortium; Clinical Neurology, Department of Neurosciences (DINOGMI), University of Genoa and IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Genoa, Italy.
20
On behalf of the EADC-PET consortium; Nuclear Medicine, Department of Health Science (DISSAL), University of Genoa IRCCS AOU San Martino-IST, Genoa, Italy.
21
On behalf of the EADC-PET consortium; Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.
22
On behalf of the EADC-PET consortium; AP-HM Hôpitaux de la Timone, Service de Neurologie et Neuropsychologie, Marseille, France; Aix-Marseille Université, INSERM, Institut de Neurosciences des Systèmes, Marseille, France.
23
On behalf of the EADC-PET consortium; Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
24
Department of Neurology and Memory Clinic, CHU Liège, Liège, Belgium; GIGA-CRC in vivo Imaging, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
25
GIGA-CRC in vivo Imaging, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
26
Department of Neurology and Memory Clinic, CHU Liège, Liège, Belgium.
27
Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
28
Institute of Molecular Medicine and Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, Portugal.
29
Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
30
Real World Data Science (RWD-S) Neuroscience and Established Products, F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd. Pharmaceuticals Division, Basel, Switzerland.
31
PDB RWD (Real World Data) Team, Roche Products Limited, Welwyn Garden City, UK; Epidemiologische Beratung und Literatur-Recherche "conepi", Herrsching, Germany.
32
PDB RWD (Real World Data) Team, Roche Products Limited, Welwyn Garden City, UK.
33
Janssen Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Titusville, NJ, USA.
34
Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc, Ridgefield, CT, USA.
35
Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, Clinical Memory Research Unit, Lund, Sweden.
36
Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris 06, AXA Research Fund & UPMC Chair, Institut de la Mémoire et de la Maladie d'Alzheimer (IM2A) & Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière (ICM), Département de Neurologie, Hôpital de la Pitié-Salpétrière, 47 Boulevard de l'Hôpital, Paris, CEDEX 13, France.
37
Institute of Clinical Medicine, Neurology, University of Eastern Finland and Neurocenter, Neurology, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.
38
Alzheimer Center & Department of Neurology, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
39
Department of Psychiatry and Neuropsychology, Maastricht University, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Alzheimer Center Limburg, Maastricht, Netherlands; Alzheimer Center & Department of Neurology, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Abstract

We investigated whether dementia risk factors were associated with prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) according to the International Working Group-2 and National Institute of Aging-Alzheimer's Association criteria, and with cognitive decline. A total of 1394 subjects with mild cognitive impairment from 14 different studies were classified according to these research criteria, based on cognitive performance and biomarkers. We compared the frequency of 10 risk factors between the subgroups, and used Cox-regression to examine the effect of risk factors on cognitive decline. Depression, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia occurred more often in individuals with low-AD-likelihood, compared with those with a high-AD-likelihood. Only alcohol use increased the risk of cognitive decline, regardless of AD pathology. These results suggest that traditional risk factors for AD are not associated with prodromal AD or with progression to dementia, among subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Future studies should validate these findings and determine whether risk factors might be of influence at an earlier stage (i.e., preclinical) of AD.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer's disease; Biomarkers; IWG-2 criteria; NIA-AA criteria; Prognosis; Risk factors

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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