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J Clin Invest. 2017 Jun 30;127(7):2482-2491. doi: 10.1172/JCI90596. Epub 2017 May 8.

Impact of environmental factors on alloimmunity and transplant fate.

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Schuster Family Transplantation Research Center, Renal Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Department of Developmental, Molecular and Chemical Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Sackler School of Biomedical Sciences Programs in Immunology and Genetics, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.


Although gene-environment interactions have been investigated for many years to understand people's susceptibility to autoimmune diseases or cancer, a role for environmental factors in modulating alloimmune responses and transplant outcomes is only now beginning to emerge. New data suggest that diet, hyperlipidemia, pollutants, commensal microbes, and pathogenic infections can all affect T cell activation, differentiation, and the kinetics of graft rejection. These observations reveal opportunities for novel therapeutic interventions to improve graft outcomes as well as for noninvasive biomarker discovery to predict or diagnose graft deterioration before it becomes irreversible. In this Review, we will focus on the impact of these environmental factors on immune function and, when known, on alloimmune function, as well as on transplant fate.

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